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Articles by M. Belhadj
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. Belhadj
  F. Ayad , M. Belhadj , J. Paries , J. R. Attali and P. Valensi
  Aims To examine the association between cardiac autonomic neuropathy and hypertension and the role of this association in diabetic complications.
Methods We included 310 patients, 138 with Type 1 and 172 with Type 2 diabetes, 62 of them with hypertension. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was assessed by analysing heart rate variations during three standard tests (deep breathing, lying to standing and Valsalva) and looking for postural hypotension.
Results Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was present in 123 patients and 39 also had hypertension. The prevalence of a cardiac autonomic neuropathy/hypertension association was higher in Type 2 patients (P < 0.002). The prevalence of hypertension increased with the severity of cardiac autonomic neuropathy. In multiple logistic regression analysis, cardiac autonomic neuropathy was an independent risk factor for hypertension [odds ratio 2.86 (1.54–5.32); P < 0.001]. Only confirmed or severe cardiac autonomic neuropathy (two or more abnormal function tests, respectively) were independent risk factors for hypertension (P < 0.005 and < 0.0001). Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was found in most of the patients with macrovascular complications, retinopathy or nephropathy, but a large majority of the patients with these complications exhibited the cardiac autonomic neuropathy/hypertension profile. This profile was more prevalent among the patients with coronary or peripheral artery disease or antecedent stroke than among those free of these complications (P < 0.001). In logistic regression analyses, the cardiac autonomic neuropathy/hypertension profile associated significantly with macro- and microvascular complications.
Conclusions These data are strongly in favour of the role of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in hypertension in diabetic patients. The association of the cardiac autonomic neuropathy/hypertension profile with vascular complications is consistent with a deleterious effect on vascular hemodynamics and structure, additional to the effects of hypertension.
  L. N. Handlos , D. R. Witte , T. P. Almdal , L. B. Nielsen , S. E. Badawi , A. R. A. Sheikh , M. Belhadj , D. Nadir , S. Zinai and D. Vistisen


To develop risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia for individuals living in the Middle East and North Africa region. In addition, to derive national risk scores for Algeria, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates and to compare the performance of the regional risk scores with the national risk scores.


An opportunistic sample of 6588 individuals aged 30-75 years was screened. Screening consisted of a questionnaire and a clinical examination including measurement of HbA1c. Two regional risk scores and national risk scores for each of the three countries were derived separately by stepwise backwards multiple logistic regression with diabetes [HbA1c ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5%)] and diabetes or impaired glycaemia [HbA1c ≥ 42 mmol/mol (≥ 6.0%)] as outcome. The performance of the regional and national risk scores was compared in data from each country by receiver operating characteristic analysis.


The eight risk scores all included age and BMI, while additional variables differed between the scores. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were between 0.67 and 0.70, and for sensitivities approximately 75%; specificities varied between 50% and 57%. The regional and the national risk scores performed equally well in the three national samples.


Two regional risk scores for diabetes and diabetes or impaired glycaemia applicable to the Middle East and North Africa region were identified. The regional risk scores performed as well as the national risk scores derived in the same manner.

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