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Articles by M. Bedair
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Bedair
  M.A. Razzaque , S.A. Mohammed , T. Al- Mutawa and M. Bedair
  Problem statement: Imported Holstein Friesian dairy cattle are exposed to hot arid climate in feedlot management in Kuwait. Desert climate is extreme reaching high 45-50°C in summer and low -4°C in winter at day and night respectively. High calf mortality, poor reproduction and milk yields were main constraints to viable dairying. The objectives of this study were to assess the magnitude of calf mortality, its causes; implement strategic intervention measures for improving calf survival rates and evaluate dairy herd performance. Approach: Two scenarios were used: (1) studying dairy herd performance without applying intervention measures and (2) introducing improved management with interventions. Performance of the herds of situations 1 and 2 were compared. Three classes of dairy herds, pre-weaned calves, heifers and first lactation cows born in Kuwait were used. Results: Implementing intervention measures resulted in significant (p = 0.001) reduction of crude calf mortality rates from a mean of 43.6% to a low 4.67%. Growth rates of calves and heifers increased significantly, resulting in breeding of locally raised heifers at 15 mo age instead of usual practice of breeding at 18-22 mo. Feed cost was significantly reduced by 14-25% by early breeding of heifers. Herd culling rate was reduced from 62-33% and conception rates increased by 41%. The milk yield was increased by 1.25-1.50 fold through replacing the imported cows by locally born heifers. Adult cattle mortality rates reduced from high 9 to a low 1%. Case study showed that locally born and reared dairy herd formed a mean of 65.8% of total dairy cattle in cooperating farms. Conclusion: A systematic applied research studies in the commercial dairy farms had resulted in a visible improvement in the performance of all categories of locally born dairy herds and they were better adapted to the local hostile climate.
  M.A. Razzaque , T. Al-Mutawa , S. Abbas and M. Bedair
  Problem statement: A high mortality rate (crude mortality 43.6%) of pre-weaned dairy calves resulted in unavailability of replacement heifers in Kuwait. Dairy producers resorted to import pregnant heifers for herd replacement. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of dam vaccination and age, serum Immunoglobulin (Ig) on disease syndromes and mortality in pre-weaned calves. Approach: Late pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows and heifers of five commercial dairy operations were divided into two herds: Treatment (T) vaccinated using Lactovac against Rotavirus, Coronavirus and Escherichia coli and Control (C) unvaccinated herds. Total of 1,088 newborn calves of above herds were also divided as T and C for studies from their birth to weaning at 90 days. Calves weighed at birth, fed colostrum, serum proteins and Ig (IgG, IgM and IgA) were determined; disease syndromes, morbidity and mortality rates were investigated. Results: Mean birth weight (34.25±SE 0.21 kg) of calves did not differ significantly (p<0.01) between treatments. Crude mortality rates differed significantly (p<0.01) ranging from 2.83-22.83% in calves among herds. Highly significant differences were observed in Ig classes of blood serum of calves: IgG (F 3.47 p<0.010), IgM (F 3.52 p<0.009) and IgA (F 3.66 p<0.008). The effects of Ig levels on calf morbidity rates were significant (p<0.05) on three disease syndromes: pneumonia, diarrhea and pneumo-enteritis. Vaccination of pregnant dams and oral administration of antibodies to newborn calves reduced calf morbidity and mortality rates. Major disease syndromes were pneumo-enteritis (34.6%) and pneumonia (33.8%). Younger calves were greatly affected by these diseases. Conclusion: Inadequate levels of passive immunity of young calves were commonly found in Kuwait’s farms. This study demonstrated the importance of passive immunity of calves by ensuring adequate levels of serum Ig and protein levels.
  M.A. Razzaque , S.A. Mohammed , T. Al-Mutawa and M. Bedair
  Kuwait’s dairy producers import pregnant Holstein Friesian Heifers and they thrive for 2.3 lactations with poor milk yield. Offspring of imported dams are subjected to high mortality, poor growth and reproduction. This study investigated growth, reproduction, milk yield and composition of locally born heifers fed two types of diets. Total 92 weaned 90 d old heifers born in Kuwait from imported dams were assigned to two different diets. Control (C): 25 heifers were fed commercial diet and Treatment (T): 67 heifers were fed balanced improved diets containing 17.5% and 15.1% CP, respectively. T diet was also balanced with vitamins and minerals, where, as C diets were not. Both herds were individually monitored for their heights and live weights; followed by reproductive and lactation performance. Herd T gained significantly (p<0.05) better live weight (T: 0.88 Kg vs. C: 0.71 Kg/h/d) than that of C and reaching significantly (p<0.01) better heights (T: 59% vs. C: 15%) of total standard height of 132 cm. Farm to farm differences in first service (mean±SD) conception rate and pregnancy rate did not differ between C and T herds (p = 0.05). Milk yield differences for C and T herds were 16.86±0.70 and 18.30±1.40 L/cow/day, respectively as well as Milk composition were not significant (p= 0.05). Milk Urea Nitrogen (MUN) concentration was significantly higher (p<0.001) in T herd than that of C reflecting a better protein nutritional status in T than that of C herd.
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