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Articles by M. Alonso-Spilsbury
Total Records ( 6 ) for M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  H. Orozco-Gregorio , D. Mota-Rojas , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , M. Gonzalez-Lozano , M. Trujillo-Ortega , S.A. Olmos-Hernandez , P. Sanchez-Aparicio , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , R. Hernandez-Gonzalez , R. Uribe-Escamilla and D. Villanueva-Garcia
  Prolonged or intermittent asphyxia in utero and during farrowing weakens piglets and renders them less capable of adaptation to extrauterine life. Piglets with lesser viability at birth have increased blood pCO2 and blood lactic acid concentrations and decreased blood pH. Moreover, the ability to thermoregulate during an acute cold stress is inversely related to umbilical blood lactate concentrations. Blood gas measurements and noninvasive estimations provide important information about oxygenation. The general goals of oxygen therapy in the neonate are to maintain adequate arterial PaO2 and SaO2, and to minimize cardiac work and the work of breathing. Arterial blood gas determinations of pCO2 provide the most accurate determinations of the adequacy of alveolar ventilation. Blood gases obtained in the immediate perinatal period can help assess perinatal asphyxia, but particular attention must be paid to the sampling site, the time of life, and the possible and proven diagnoses. The decision to obtain blood gases must be weighed by the individual clinician against the potential benefits. Current measures for restoring the acid base balance status in the newborn with perinatal asphyxia are discussed.
  D. Mota-Rojas , M.J. Maldonado , M.H. Becerril , S.C.P. Flores , M. Gonzalez-Lozano , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , D. Camacho-Morfin , R.N. Ramirez , A.L. Cardona and L. Morfin-Loyden
  Currently, poultry plants are sacrificing between 140 to 180 broilers per minute; sometimes animals are not sacrificed properly, which makes manual sacrifice necessary. In the present study a review is provided on the most relevant aspects regarding different methods used for chicken sacrifice, these methods are analyzed and a comparison with Mexican regulations is given regarding the humanitarian sacrifice of domestic birds for human consumption. We conclude that the main objective of broiler sacrifice should be the well-being of the animal, it must also be economic, practical and safe for workers. In Mexico, research must be developed to justify adequate use of sacrificial methods and its effect on the quality of poultry meat such as ostrich, turkey and quail.
  V. A. Gonzalez , G. E. Rojas , A.E. Aguilera , S. C. Flores-Peinado , C. Lemus-Flores , A. Olmos-Hernandez , M. Becerril-Herrera , A. Cardona-Leija , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , R. Ramirez-Necoechea and D. Mota-Rojas
  Currently in Mexico there is no regulation ruling over transportation and the rest period before slaughtering quail. An experiment was carried out to evaluate transportation and rest period effects before sacrifice on the metabolic profile, blood gas, pH and meat quality of the Japanese quail carcass. Sixty quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were transported to slaughter, on arrival they were randomly divided in 2 groups: with (4 hours) rest and without rest (slaughtered right away). A blood simple was taken before and post sacrifice. After transportation, the rested quail had significantly lower lactate levels (p<0.05), compared to the quail without rest (36.33±6.17 vs. 21.64±2.14, respectively). The results showed that when quail are stressed, pCO2 and lactate levels tend to diminish significantly (p<0.05) compared to mammals. Rest showed a direct effect on temperature (p<0.05), diminishing acidity, reflected though hot and cold carcass pH as compared to the group of quail without rest.
  M. Alonso-Spilsbury , I. Escobar-Ibarra , L. Mayagoitia , R. Ramirez-Necoechea and D.Mota-Rojas
  The social and maintenance behaviors of two pairs of Mexican gray wolf in captivity were studied. Wolves belonged to Zacango (ZZ) and Leon Zoo (LZ). For the ZZ pair significant differences were observed (p<0.01) for the social behaviors, whereas no differences were found for neutral or affiliative behaviors. The LZ pair showed no differences in social behavior before the breeding season, but after this significant differences were observed for playing and sexual activity (p<0.001). Wolves showed a preference (p<0.0001) to perform their activities on a reduced place far away from the human transit, especially those related with the courtship behavior. For the ZZ pair a total number of 389 mounting observations were registered during 11 consecutive days, most of them with pelvic movements but only two culminating with copulation (0.6%). The LZ pair showed a reproductive activity of 180 mountings, three of them culminating with copula (1.6%); none of the pairs showed reproductive success. Reproductive success depends on both physiological and behavioral compatibility, but some other causes may be involved in the reproductive failure of the ZZ pair, among them the stress of restraining for the cytology studies and the housing conditions like the presence of large predators as closer neighbors to the wolves.
  P. Scnchez-Aparicio , D. Mota-Rojas , A. Verduzco-Mendoza , E. Arch-Tirado , R. Hernandez-Gonzalez , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , M. Gonzalez-Lozano , A. Alfaro-Rodriguez , R. Uribe-Escamilla , M. Becerril-Herrera and M.E. Trujillo-Ortega
  The objective of this study was to establish a range of reference values for blood gas analysis, electrolytes, hematocrit and critical blood variables for guinea pigs anaesthetized with xylazine-ketamine. The influence of the strain (short hair English vs. Duncan-Hartley) was also evaluated. Blood was obtained by cardiocentesis from 40 clinically healthy 8-11 weeks old female adult guinea pigs. Results indicated the following values: pH (7.28-7.55 vs. 7.38-7.53), PCO2 (28-42 vs. 33-44 mmHg), PO2 (18-70 vs. 25-52 mmHg), Na+ (124-141 vs. 126-137 mmol L-1), K+ (3-7.5 vs. 3.6-4.6 mmol L-1), Ca2+ (0.52-1.28 vs. 1.28-1.47 mmol L-1), glucose (64-190 vs. 98-211 mg dL-1), lactate (1-5 vs. 0.3-6.6 mg dL-1) and hematocrit (27-40 vs. 38-49%) for short hair English and Duncan-Hartley guinea pigs, respectively. No differences in the guinea pigs electrolytes or blood gas analysis were found. However, we can confirm that the individual’s pigmented short hair English strain showed the most favorable results in regard to the PCO2, Ca2+ and haematocrit values when submitted to the sedation combination of xylazine-ketamine.
  M. Becerril-Herrera , D. Mota-Rojas , I. Guerrero-Legarreta , M. Gonzalez-Lozano , P. Sanchez-Aparicio , C. Lemus-Flores , S.C. Flores-Peinado , R. Ramirez-Necoechea and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of increasing space in transportation at different distances, on live weight loss in pigs and to determine the effects of fasting and pre-slaughter lairage period on both live and carcass weights by sex and on pork quality. Seven hundred and twenty pigs Pietrain x (YorkshirexLandrace) were divided into two experimental conditions (EC1 and EC2). EC1 pigs were divided in three groups of 120 animals each and were transported for 8, 16 and 24 h (loading density: 0.35 m2/100 kg). EC2 pigs were divided in three groups of 120 animals, the transport duration was the same as in EC1 (loading density: 0.68 m2/100 kg). Transport duration and space allowance significantly affected (p< 0.01) the posture of the pigs on arrival to the slaughterhouse; there were significant differences (p< 0.01) between genders. When transport time was shorter, a higher number of pigs arrived in a standing posture, more females arrived in a standing position in the group shipped for 8 h. Pig position affected carcass yield, when transportation time was shorter carcass yield was higher. There was a higher percentage (p< 0.01) of pigs at pH 5.8-6.2 in animals transported for 8 h, compared with 16 and 24 h period, independently of the space allowance. Additional space provided to pigs during transportation lead to a better animal welfare in transit and had no decisive influence in the quality of the carcass; nevertheless, the quality of meat improved.
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