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Articles by M. Ahmad
Total Records ( 8 ) for M. Ahmad
  L.K. Shyuan , L.Y. Heng , M. Ahmad , S.A. Aziz and Z. Ishak
  An bioelectrochemical sensor or biosensor based on the inhibition of the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) has been investigated for the screening of several environmental toxicants. The biosensor was constructed by immobilizing ALP in a hybrid sol-gel/chitosan film that was deposited on the surface of a screen-printed carbon paste electrode (SPE). The inhibition was measured via the catalytic hydrolysis of ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA2P) by the enzyme to produce ascorbic acid. Oxidation of this product was monitored amperometrically and the current change was then related to ALP activity. Toxicity of herbicides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), insecticides (carbofuran and α-endosulfan) and heavy metals (Hg2+, Cd2+, Ag2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+) towards the biosensor were evaluated. Various degrees of inhibition of ALP occurred when the biosensor was exposed to herbicides and heavy metals. This resulted in a lower acid ascorbic production by the enzyme from the substrate, thus a decrease in the current response of the biosensor. The herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T showed the largest inhibition effect on ALP with linear response range of 1-60 μg L-1 (R2 = 0.92). The maximum inhibitions caused by 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T were 46 and 30%, respectively. Heavy metals caused inhibition on ALP at the higher concentration range of mg L-1. Thus, the biosensor may be useful for the screening of chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides even in the presence of other environmental toxicants.
  M. Ahmad
  People With Epilepsy (PWE) and their families often face a very common aspect of this neurological disease epilepsy, known as Epilepsy Stigma (ES). ES is considered to be one of the most important factors that have a negative influence on PWE. It is a commonly encountered global issue among PWE in all cultures. ES may have deleterious effect on the patient’s life more than the disease of epilepsy itself. It is the prime duty of all health professionals to try and manage ES in order to improve the quality of life of PWE not only by controlling the seizures, but also by fighting the myths and disbelief of stigma and managing the disease with a better approach. Stigma in PWE can be encountered and dealt with by diverse specialties in health profession including physicians, surgeons, social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists and nurses. Unfortunately this important issue of ES is addressed primarily in specialized journals like Epilepsy Research, Epilepsia, Epilepsy and Behavior, Seizure and Social Science Medicine which are read by professionals interested mainly in epileptiology or social sciences, whereas the actual problem of ES and its management remains neglected and does not reach the common readers and the non-scientific communities which form a major part of the society in any culture or country. Thus, there is an obvious need that this issue should be addressed in simple language in journals targeting readers of different specialties and interests through publishing articles on ES in popular magazines and dailies of the local areas globally.
  P. S Mittadodla and M. Ahmad

Hypoglycaemia leading to altered consciousness level in patients with diabetes is a commonly encountered problem in the emergency department. Prompt diagnosis and the institution of appropriate therapy usually results in a significant improvement in the patient's condition. Capillary blood glucose evaluation is routinely used on patients presenting to the emergency department. However, the limitations of this test are not widely known. This case report draws attention to spuriously normal glucose readings with a capillary blood glucose evaluation device in certain patients who have significant hypoglycaemia confirmed on arterial blood gas analysis and laboratory venous blood analysis.

  M.K. Anwer , S. Jamil , M. Ahmad , M.N. Ansari and T.H. Khan
  This study was performed on the possibility of novel complexing agent/bioavailability enhancer in the form of complexation of aspirin with fulvic acid. Solid complexes of aspirin-fulvic acid prepared by solvent evaporation, freeze drying and spray drying methods. These complexes were characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the influences of the fulvic acid on the dissolution, permeation, stability and pharmacodynamics profile of the complexes were studied. In vitro dissolution studies confirmed the successful complexation by the spray drying method in a molar ratio of 1: 1. The prepared optimized complex showed an improvement in stability and permeability (8 times as compared to pure drug). A significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory action of the treatment of optimized spray dried (1:1) aspirin complex with fulvic acid was evidenced by inhibition of rat paw edema and anti-ulcerogenic action was measured by lowest score of ulcer index (0.480.08) with significant reduction in ulceration as compared to pure drug. Fulvic acid appears to be beneficial to overcome the problem of stability and bioavailability of aspirin. A highly significant anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic action was observed by the treatment of optimized complex. Technology has been developed which can be used for improvement formulation of aspirin.
  A. B Afzal , M. J Akhtar and M. Ahmad

Solution blending technique has been used to synthesize dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)-doped polyaniline (PAND)/poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) blends by two methods, namely redoping method (PANDR/PVC blends) and aqueous polymerization method (PANDA/PVC blends). PANDR/PVC blends show improved mechanical properties as compared to PANDA/PVC blends, which show brittle nature of the films. However, by increasing concentration of PANDR in the PVC matrix, PANDR/PVC blend films are becoming more rigid due to increases in the modulus of elasticity. Irradiation of blend samples by electron beam used during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses has changed the morphology of PANDA/PVC blend films due to dehydrochlorination of free PVC, whereas PANDR/PVC blends remain unaffected during irradiation by electron beam.

  M. Ahmad , M.N. Ansari , A. Alam and T.H. Khan
  Diabetic patients wound healing is slower than the healthy individuals. Three citrus peel extracts; Lemon (Citrus limon), Grapes fruits (Citrus paradise) and Orange (Citrus sinensis) promote wound healing in experimental animals. This study investigated the effect of oral treatment with citrus peel extracts on wound repair of the skin of diabetic rats. The extracts were estimated for vitamin C and total carotenoid contents prior to animal study. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 75 mg kg-1 b.wt.). One week after diabetes induction, full thickness excision wounds were made in hyperglycemic rats and were divided groups, each containing 6 rats. The different test group animals were treated with different citrus peel extract orally at the dose of 400 mg kg-1 body weight daily for 12 days. The blood glucose, body weight and rate of wound closure of each rat were measured every 3rd day during the experimental period. At the end of experiment, granular tissues of wounds were removed and estimated for hydroxylproline and total protein content. The results showed significant reduction in blood glucose and time to wound closure. Tissue growth and collagen synthesis were significantly higher as determined by total protein and hydroxyl proline content. From our experimental data, we propose that oral administration of citrus peel extracts has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of chronic wounds in diabetes.
  M. Ahmad and B.P. Panda
  Microbial biotransformation of Glycyrrhizinic acid (GL) into 18-β Glycyrrhetinic Acid (GA) was achieved using Escherichia coli MTCC 1652 whole cell. The E. coli whole cell was immobilized by entrapment method within calcium alginate beads using cell suspension of equal volume with sodium alginate 8%. The pH of solution, reaction volume and % of GL were optimized during the immobilization procedure and optimum pH 6.5, reaction volume of 4 mL and at 3% GL concentration for 12 h of incubation time showed highest concentration of GA (72.649 μg mL-1) with 76% bioconversion of GL to GA. Under optimized condition the immobilized cell produces 58.663 μg per mL of GA in licorice root extract containing 95.118 μg of GL per mL of the extract with 61% conversion at 12 h.
  S. Kaleem , F.U. Hassan , M.A.A.H.A. Bukhsh , I. Mahmood , R. Ullah , M. Ahmad and A. Wasaya
  Sunflower crop has an ability to maintain high level of viability in varying environments. Prevailing temperature at pollination and after anthesis affects pollen health, fertilization process and ultimately the seed filling and assimilate partitioning that varies in different circles/whorls of sunflower heads. Field experiments one each in spring and autumn 2007 were conducted at Pir Mehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi, Pakistan to evaluate and document the oil and fatty acid accumulation in different circles/whorls of sunflower heads as influenced by varying environments. Sunflower hybrid S-278 was planted in randomized complete block design with four replications. Each head was divided into three equal circles (outer, middle and central) at maturity, thereafter, oil and fatty acid distribution was separately determined in each circle. Oil and fatty acid accumulated in three circles differed significantly. Outer circle accumulated higher oil content during spring which decreased to the minimum in central circle while, autumn season showed contrasting results in which oil contents progressively increased from outer to central circle. The maximum oleic acid was observed in outer circle which decreased to minimum in central circle during the both spring and autumn seasons, however, linoleic acid consistently increased from outer to central circle during both the seasons. Thus, oleic and linoleic acid depicted inverse relation with circles. Saturated fatty acid (palmatic acid and stearic acid) did not depict any consistent pattern for accumulation in different circles during both the seasons. Overall, spring planted crop exhibited significantly higher values for oil and oleic contents in comparison with autumn planting, which may be attributed to higher temperature, sunshine hours and accumulation of more growing degree days during the spring.
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