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Articles by M. Yaqoob Wani
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. Yaqoob Wani
  A. Hansa , R.B. Rai , M. Yaqoob Wani and K. Dhama
  Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is widespread in cattle population, resulting in heavy economic losses to both dairy and beef industry throughout the world. The syndromes associated with BCoV include winter dysentery in adult dairy cattle and respiratory and intestinal tract infections in young calves. The virus has specific tropism for intestinal and pulmonary epithelial cells. Reports regarding prevalence and molecular detection of BCoV from India are scarce. In this study, 101 fecal samples were collected from clinical cases of diarrheic calves from North Indian region covering three dairy farms of Uttar Pradesh and dead calves of post mortem facility of Indian Veterinary Research Institute. Fecal samples from all the cases were screened for the presence of BCoV by commercially available ELISA kit. Furthermore, all samples were subjected to RT-PCR for detection and confirmation BCoV. RT-PCR was carried out using two different sets of primers to amplify the conserved nucleocapsid (N) gene of the virus targeting a 407 and 730 bp fragments. An incidence rate of more than 14% (15/101) was observed with ELISA and about 20% (20/101) by RT-PCR. The present report is first in its nature regarding the detection of BCoV at molecular level in India. In conclusion, RT-PCR was found more sensitive than commercial ELISA kit for detecting BCoV in fecal samples. Further extensive epidemiological studies are suggested for the virus in the country to know the magnitude of BCoV infection in dairy calves along with isolation of viral strains and to investigate their antigenic and genetic properties.
  M. Yaqoob Wani , Tapas Kumar Goswami , Raies Ahmad Mir , Pallab Chaudhuri and Kuldeep Dhama
  Gram negative sepsis and septic shock are among the leading causes of death, both in humans and animals. Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors are said to have immune modulating effects. In the present study, it was hypothesized that amelioration of hyper immune activation by pravastatin can improve the immunoapthological status of acute sepsis. Pasteurella multocida Pm52 strain was used as a source of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the pathogenic organism for induction of septicaemia in mice. In vitro trials showed that LPS extracted from P. multocida stimulated Nitric Oxide (NO) production in time and dose dependent manner in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast (MEF) cultures. Addition of pravastatin to MEF culture supernatant significantly reduced Pm52 LPS induced NO production (p<0.05). In vivo studies showed that administration of pravastatin in combination with cefotaxime to P. multocida induced septicaemic mice significantly increased both mean survival time and survivability percentage compared to antibiotic and pravastatin treatments regimes. Furthermore, the serum TNF-α : IL-10 levels were significantly improved and near to normal healthy ratios in septicaemic mice treated with pravastatin+cefotaxime combination at 24 h post infection. Gross and histopathological findings revealed moderate lesion in pravastatin treated mice as compared to untreated and cefotaxime alone treated groups. The findings conclude that pravastatin stabilizes the immune compromised status of the septicaemic animals during early septic stages by stabilising the NO production, regulating the TNF-α: IL-10 ratio and reducing histopathological lesions. Although the mortality was not prevented, the immunopathological signs were ameliorated to a greater extent by this new treatment combination, further investigations are suggested to explore its possible therapeutic utility against sepsis and for septicaemic patients.
  M. Yaqoob Wani , Tapas Kumar Goswami , Divya Chaudhary , Rajendra Singh and Kuldeep Dhama
  Lipopolysaccharide is the most important component of Gram negative bacteria that activates immune system through TLR-4 pathway. In the present study, the adjuvant effects of Pasturella multocida 52 strain (Pm52) on Hen Egg-white Lysozyme (HEL) and the possible attenuation of septic signs by pravastatin were investigated. In vitro results showed that Pm52 LPS stimulates nitric oxide (NO) production from splenocytes in time and dose dependent manner where as pravastatin (10 μM) inhibited the LPS induced NO production to basal levels (p<0.05). Furthermore, presence of pravastatin (10 μM) does not inhibit the in vitro proliferative responses of splenocytes by graded doses of Pm52 extracted LPS. The co-administration of Pm52 LPS with HEL by subcutaneous route in mice significantly increased TNF-α and NO levels at 2 and 6 h, respectively, as well as the HEL specific IgG development at 14th day Post Inoculation (PI). Administration of pravastatin by intraperitoneal route significantly reduced serum TNF-α and NO levels, the pro-inflammatory mediators responsible for induction of septic shock as well as stabilized TNF-α: IL-10 ratio without affecting HEL specific adaptive immune responses. However, further studies are required in this direction to determine the long term immune modulating effects of LPS and pravastatin on the host animals so as to be used in a beneficial way.
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