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Articles by M. Y Chou
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. Y Chou
  J Sun , K Hartvigsen , M. Y Chou , Y Zhang , G. K Sukhova , J Zhang , M Lopez Ilasaca , C. J Diehl , N Yakov , D Harats , J George , J. L Witztum , P Libby , H Ploegh and G. P. Shi
 

Background— Adaptive immunity and innate immunity play important roles in atherogenesis. Invariant chain (CD74) mediates antigen-presenting cell antigen presentation and T-cell activation. This study tested the hypothesis that CD74-deficient mice have reduced numbers of active T cells and resist atherogenesis.

Methods and Results— In low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (Ldlr–/–) mice, CD74 deficiency (Ldlr–/–Cd74–/–) significantly reduced atherosclerosis and CD25+-activated T cells in the atheromata. Although Ldlr–/–Cd74–/– mice had decreased levels of plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2b, and IgG2c against malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), presumably as a result of impaired antigen-presenting cell function, Ldlr–/–Cd74–/– mice showed higher levels of anti–MDA-LDL IgM and IgG3. After immunization with MDA-LDL, Ldlr–/–Cd74–/– mice had lower levels of all anti–MDA-LDL Ig isotypes compared with Ldlr–/– mice. As anticipated, only Ldlr–/– splenocytes responded to in vitro stimulation with MDA-LDL, producing Th1/Th2 cytokines. Heat shock protein-65 immunization enhanced atherogenesis in Ldlr–/– mice, but Ldlr–/– Cd74–/– mice remained protected. Compared with Ldlr–/– mice, Ldlr–/–Cd74–/– mice had higher anti–MDA-LDL autoantibody titers, fewer lesion CD25+-activated T cells, impaired release of Th1/Th2 cytokines from antigen-presenting cells after heat shock protein-65 stimulation, and reduced levels of all plasma anti–heat shock protein-65 Ig isotypes. Cytofluorimetry of splenocytes and peritoneal cavity cells of MDA-LDL– or heat shock protein-65–immunized mice showed increased percentages of autoantibody-producing marginal zone B and B-1 cells in Ldlr–/–Cd74–/– mice compared with Ldlr–/– mice.

Conclusions— Invariant chain deficiency in Ldlr–/– mice reduced atherosclerosis. This finding was associated with an impaired adaptive immune response to disease-specific antigens. Concomitantly, an unexpected increase in the number of innate-like peripheral B-1 cell populations occurred, resulting in increased IgM/IgG3 titers to the oxidation-specific epitopes.

  C. C Tsai , C. L Lin , T. L Wang , A. C Chou , M. Y Chou , C. H Lee , I W Peng , J. H Liao , Y. T Chen and C. Y. Pan
 

Vesicle recycling is vital for maintaining membrane homeostasis and neurotransmitter release. Multiple pathways for retrieving vesicles fused to the plasma membrane have been reported in neuroendocrine cells. Dynasore, a dynamin GTPase inhibitor, has been shown to specifically inhibit endocytosis and vesicle recycling in nerve terminals. To characterize its effects in modulating vesicle recycling and repetitive exocytosis, changes in the whole cell membrane capacitance of bovine chromaffin cells were recorded in the perforated-patch configuration. Constitutive endocytosis was blocked by dynasore treatment, as shown by an increase in membrane capacitance. The membrane capacitance was increased during strong depolarizations and declined within 30 s to a value lower than the prestimulus level. The amplitude, but not the time constant, of the rapid exponential decay was significantly decreased by dynasore treatment. Although the maximal increase in capacitance induced by stimulation was significantly increased by dynasore treatment, the intercepts at time 0 of the curve fitted to the decay phase were all ~110% of the membrane capacitance before stimulation, regardless of the dynasore concentration used. Membrane depolarization caused clathrin aggregation and F-actin continuity disruption at the cell boundary, whereas dynasore treatment induced clathrin aggregation without affecting F-actin continuity. The number of invagination pits on the surface of the plasma membrane determined using atomic force microscopy was increased and the pore was wider in dynasore-treated cells. Our data indicate that dynamin-mediated endocytosis is the main pathway responsible for rapid compensatory endocytosis.

 
 
 
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