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Articles by M. T Fujiwara
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. T Fujiwara
  Y Chen , T Asano , M. T Fujiwara , S Yoshida , Y Machida and Y. Yoshioka

Plastids are maintained in cells by proliferating prior to cell division and being partitioned to each daughter cell during cell division. It is unclear, however, whether cells without plastids are generated when plastid division is suppressed. The crumpled leaf (crl) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is a plastid division mutant that displays severe abnormalities in plastid division and plant development. We show that the crl mutant contains cells lacking detectable plastids; this situation probably results from an unequal partitioning of plastids to each daughter cell. Our results suggest that crl has a partial defect in plastid expansion, which is suggested to be important in the partitioning of plastids to daughter cells when plastid division is suppressed. The absence of cells without detectable plastids in the accumulation and replication of chloroplasts 6 (arc6) mutant, another plastid division mutant of A. thaliana having no significant defects in plant morphology, suggests that the generation of cells without detectable plastids is one of the causes of the developmental abnormalities seen in crl plants. We also demonstrate that plastids with trace or undetectable amounts of chlorophyll are generated from enlarged plastids by a non-binary fission mode of plastid replication in both crl and arc6.

  M. T Fujiwara , K Sekine , Y. Y Yamamoto , T Abe , N Sato and R. D. Itoh

Chloroplast division involves the tubulin-related GTPase FtsZ that assembles into a ring structure (Z-ring) at the mid-chloroplast division site, which is where invagination and constriction of the envelope membranes occur. Z-ring assembly is usually confined to the mid-chloroplast site by a well balanced counteraction of the stromal proteins MinD and MinE. The in vivo mechanisms by which FtsZ nucleates at specific sites, polymerises into a protofil-ament and organises a closed ring of filament bundles remain largely unknown. To clarify the dynamic aspects of FtsZ, we developed a living cell system for simultaneous visualisation of various FtsZ configurations, utilising the Arabidopsis thaliana overexpressor and mutant of the MinE (AtMinE1) gene, which were modified to weakly express green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to AtFtsZ1-1. Time-lapse observation in the chloroplasts of both plants revealed disorderly movement of the dots and short filaments of FtsZ. The short filaments often appeared to emanate from the dots and to converge with a long filament, producing a thick cable. In the AtMinE1 overexpressor, we also observed spirals along the longitudinal axis of the organelle that often rolled the closed rings together. In the atminE1 mutant, we visualised the ‘isolated’ rings with a maximum diameter of ~2 µm that did not encircle the organelle periphery, but appeared to be suspended in the stroma. Our observations further demonstrated heterogeneity in chloroplast shapes and concurrently altered configurations of FtsZ in the mutant.

  Y Kazama , M. T Fujiwara , A Koizumi , K Nishihara , R Nishiyama , E Kifune , T Abe and S. Kawano

To elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying dioecious flower development, the present study analyzed a SUPERMAN (SUP) homolog, SlSUP, which was identified in Silene latifolia. The sex of this plant is determined by heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. It was revealed that SlSUP is a single-copy autosomal gene expressed exclusively in female flowers. Introduction of a genomic copy of SlSUP into the Arabidopsis thaliana sup (sup-2) mutant complemented the excess-stamen and infertile phenotypes of sup-2, and the overexpression of SlSUP in transgenic Arabidopsis plants resulted in reduced stamen numbers as well as the suppression of petal elongation. During the development of the female flower in S. latifolia, the expression of SlSUP is first detectable in whorls 2 and 3 when the normal expression pattern of the B-class flowering genes was already established and persisted in the stamen primordia until the ovule had matured completely. In addition, significant expression of SlSUP was detected in the ovules, suggestive of the involvement of this gene in ovule development. Furthermore, it was revealed that the de-suppression of stamen development by infection of the S. latifolia female flower with Microbotryum violaceum was accompanied by a significant reduction in SlSUP transcript levels in the induced organs. Taken together, these results demonstrate that SlSUP is a female flower-specific gene and suggest that SlSUP has a positive role in the female flower developmental pathways of S. latifolia.

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