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Articles by M. Shahid
Total Records ( 5 ) for M. Shahid
  Karamat Mahmud , Rehana Naseer , M. Shahid and Samia Rashid
  This research paper reports the biochemical analysis and trace element analysis of Cymbopogon jwarancusa. Biochemical studies indicated that moisture contents, 67.02%; ash contents, 9.52%; carbohydrates, 1.8%; reducing sugar, 1.07%; non reducing sugar, 0.80%; nitrogen, 0.67%; crude proteins, 5.02%; crude fiber, 9.50%. The seed of Cymbopogon jwarancusa was used to extract oil, (yield of oil was 2%). Extracted oil indicated acid value, 7.32%; iodine value, 1.6%; saponification value, 155.25%; peroxide value, 18.2%; refractive index, 1.432 and pH of extracted oil was 4.45. Trace element analysis showed sodium (Na+) 0.60%, potassium (K+) 0.20%, lithium (Li+) below detection limit, nickel (Ni++) 0.21%, lead (Pb++) 0.34%, cadmium (Cd++) 0.12%, zinc (Zn++) 0.98%, copper (Cu++) 0.10%, manganese (Mn++) 1.25%, iron (Fe++) 1.37% and cobalt (Co++) 0.31%, were determined.
  Babar Hassan , M. Asghar , S. Nadeem , H. Zubair , H.M. Muzammil and M. Shahid
  Twenty eight strains from buffalo and cow milk were tested for amino acids production in M-1, M-II and L-6 media, fourteen being from each source. Generally, bacterial strains did not produce significant amount of all amino acids, but bacteria from both sources produced aspartic acid and alanine in molasses media (M-I and M-II). Maximum production of aspartic acid (1.9 g L-1) was given by MB-7 and MB-12 in M-I medium after 72 h of fermentation. Some strains of both the sources also produced glutamic acid. Valine (maximum 1.4 g L-1 by MC-10) was produced in M-I medium by some bacterial strains isolated from cow`s milk only. In L-6 medium, lysine (maximum 1.8 g L-1 by MB-6 and MC-13) was produced by all the isolates of both sources. The other amino acid which was produced in L-6 medium by majority of strains was isoleucine (maximum 2.1 g L-1 by MB-6). MB-5 isolated from buffalo milk was found as the best strain in L-6 medium and its produced glutamic acid, lysine and alanine as 4.5, 1.3 and 5.1 g L-1, respectively. It was observed that bacterial strains isolated from buffalo milk were more productive than the strains obtained from cow milk. The strains MB-1, MB-5, MB-13 and MB-14 obtained from buffalo milk and MC-1, MC-7 and MC-13 from cow milk were selected as good amino acids producers strains. Thus aspartic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, lysine and isoleucine were the major amino acids produced from the bacterial strains of both the milk sources.
  Syed Junaid Mahmood , Fatima Bi , Noor Taj , Seema , M. Farhan , M. Shahid , Rafia Azmat and Fahim Uddin
  This study describe the basic tools like viscosity measurements and thermodynamic parameters of the polysaccharide isolated from Hypnea musciformis (red algae) of Karachi Coast (Pakistan) showed characteristics of κ-carrageenan. An IR spectrum showed a fairly sharp band at 1210, 1225 cm-1 corresponding to sulphate ester and is in accordance with the high sulphate content of κ-carrageenan. Viscosity measurements revealed a linear relationship with increase in concentration and decreased with the rise in temperature of aqueous solutions of κ-carrageenan. Thermodynamic parameters were determined by the change in viscosity data as a function of temperature and concentration. The free energy change of activation (ΔGη) increased regularly as the concentration of aqueous κ-carrageenan increased, as well as rises in temperature. Higher values of free energy change of activation, (ΔGη) showed the higher association of κ-carrageenan with water at given temperature. The values of entropy change of activation (ΔSη) of viscous flow also increased with the increase in concentration and temperature of aqueous κ-carrageenan solution. The high negative values of entropy change of activation (ΔSη) showed that the solution of κ-carrageenan was more ordered in initial state than the activated one.
  M. Abdullah , Saleem-ur-Rehman , H. Zubair , H.M. Saeed , S. Kousar and M. Shahid
  Four types of soymilk blends were prepared for the preparation of a new variety of ice cream i.e. T1, T2, T3 and T4 in 1:9, 2:8, 3:7 and 4:6 ratios of soy flour: skim milk respectively while plain ice cream with vanilla flavour (T0) was kept as control. The physico-chemical, sensory as well as micro elements detection of ice cream were performed. It was observed that soymilk with maximum quantity of skim milk improved taste, flavour and mouth feel product. Chemical composition of soymilk blend showed 81.80% moisture, 18.20% total solids, (14.35% milk solids-not-fat and 3.85% fat. Plain ice cream (T0) contained 65.815% moisture, 34.176% total solids, 0.7423% ash, 9.850% fat, 3.345% protein, 14.880% sucrose and 5.521% lactose. Acidity determined was 0.190% and pH was 6.71. Statistically high changes were noted for overrun, acidity and lactose while significant change was noted for pH with the increase in storage period (from 0 to 30 days). It was found that ice cream from soymilk blend (T4) contain greater amount of Ca (2.01 mg/100 ml) and Fe (0.44 mg/100 ml) as compared to skim milk (0.58 mg/100 ml Ca and 0.22 mg/100 mL Fe). Sensory tests showed that T2 sample was superior to T4, which obtained lowest score. Large quantity of skim milk in soymilk improved quality of ice cream, and resulted in decline beany flavour of soy beans. It was concluded that soymilk blend can be used for the preparation of frozen desserts especially ice cream. The ice cream prepared from soymilk blend having 20 g soy flour: 80 g skim milk (T2) was of good quality in respect of sensory characteristics such as colour, taste, flavour and overall acceptability. Physico-chemical characteristics showed that T2 sample contained 65.795% moisture, 34.182% total solids, 0.7512% ash, 9.856% fat, 3.430% protein, 14.885% sucrose and 5.462% lactose. Acidity value was 0.19% whereas pH was found to be 6.709.
  Asma Ashraf , M. Shahid , Munir A. Sheikh , Jamil Qureshi , A. Ghaffar and Samina Kausar
  The study was conducted to determine the fate of herbicide (isoproturon) in the grain, straw and soil samples for the control of jangli jai in the wheat fields. Arelon (45% isoproturon) at a dose of 3.7 L ha-1 to control jangli jai was sprayed. The wheat control rating of isoproturon in control and treated plots were observed as highly significant (P<0.05). Similarly, isoproturon application has also been found to be highly significant (P<0.05) in increasing the grain yield of treated plots. The residue concentration in the whole plants of treated plot was 0.66 and 0.71 ppm, 0.25 and 0.26 ppm in grain, 0.37 and 0.36 ppm in wheat straw and the soil collected from treated plots contained 1.74 and 1.76 ppm residue of isoproturon determined by thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric techniques, respectively. Grain and wheat straw samples from control plots contained no residues but soil samples contained 0.014 and 0.018 ppm of isoproturon.
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