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Articles by M. R Taskinen
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. R Taskinen
  M. R Taskinen , D. R Sullivan , C Ehnholm , M Whiting , D Zannino , R. J Simes , A. C Keech , P. J Barter and for the FIELD study investigators

Objective— The purpose of this study was to determine fenofibrate-induced changes in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apoliprotein (apo) A-I, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-II and how they relate to changes in plasma homocysteine and creatinine.

Methods and Results— FIELD was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial done in Australia, New Zealand, and Finland. All FIELD subjects were included except those who started statin therapy or permanently discontinued fenofibrate. Patients were randomized to receive daily micronised fenofibrate (200 mg) or matching placebo and were followed up for a median of 5 years. Plasma HDL-C, apoA-I, apoA-II, homocysteine, and creatinine were measured. There was an inverse relationship between baseline homocysteine levels and HDL-C in the placebo (P=0.07 for linear trend) and fenofibrate groups (P<0.0001) and apoA-I (P<0.001, both groups). The increases in homocysteine and creatinine in the fenofibrate group correlated positively (P<0.0001). The greater the increase in homocysteine induced by fenofibrate, the smaller the increases in HDL-c and apoA-I (P<0.0001 for linear trends). There was a highly significant and positive relationship between fenofibrate-induced changes in homocysteine and apoA-II levels.

Conclusions— PPAR agonists that have a more robust effect on HDL-C and apoA-I would be desirable.

  I Iatan , Z Dastani , R Do , D Weissglas Volkov , I Ruel , J. C Lee , A Huertas Vazquez , M. R Taskinen , A Prat , N. G Seidah , P Pajukanta , J. C Engert and J. Genest

Background— A low level of plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. HDL particles are modulated by a variety of lipases, including endothelial lipase, a phospholipase present on vascular endothelial cells. The proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (PCSK5) gene product is known to directly inactivate endothelial lipase and indirectly cleave and activate angiopoetin-like protein 3, a natural inhibitor of endothelial lipase. We therefore investigated the effect of human PCSK5 genetic variants on plasma HDL-C levels.

Methods and Results— Haplotypes at the PCSK5 locus were examined in 9 multigenerational families that included 60 individuals with HDL-C <10th percentile. Segregation with low HDL-C in 1 family was found. Sequencing of the PCSK5 gene in 12 probands with HDL-C <5th percentile identified 7 novel variants. Using a 2-stage design, we first genotyped these single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) along with 163 tagSNPs and 12 additional SNPs (n=182 total) in 457 individuals with documented coronary artery disease. We identified 9 SNPs associated with HDL-C (P<0.05), with the strongest results for rs11144782 and rs11144766 (P=0.002 and P=0.005, respectively). The SNP rs11144782 was also associated with very low-density lipoprotein (P=0.039), triglycerides (P=0.049), and total apolipoprotein levels (P=0.022). In stage 2, we replicated the association of rs11144766 with HDL-C (P=0.014) in an independent sample of Finnish low HDL-C families. In a combined analysis of both stages (n=883), region-wide significance of rs11144766 and low HDL-C was observed (unadjusted P=1.86x10–4 and Bonferroni-adjusted P=0.031).

Conclusions— We conclude that variability at the PCSK5 locus influences HDL-C levels, possibly through the inactivation of endothelial lipase activity, and, consequently, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk.

  J Naukkarinen , E Nilsson , H. A Koistinen , S Soderlund , V Lyssenko , A Vaag , P Poulsen , L Groop , M. R Taskinen and L. Peltonen

Background— The upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) gene is associated with familial combined hyperlipidemia, the most common genetic dyslipidemia in humans, as well as with various dyslipidemic changes in numerous other studies. Typical of complex disease-associated genes, neither the explicit mutations have been described nor the functional consequences for risk allele carriers been reported at the cellular or tissue level.

Methods and Results— In this study, we aimed at describing the molecular mechanism through which the strongest associating intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism variant in USF1 is involved in the development of dyslipidemia. The effects of the risk variant on gene expression were studied in 2 relevant human tissues, fat and muscle. Global transcript profiles of 47 fat biopsies ascertained for carriership of the risk allele were tested for differential expression of known USF1 target genes as well as for broader effects on the transcript profile. Allelic imbalance of USF1 in fat was assessed using a quantitative sequencing approach. The possible allele-specific effect of insulin on the expression of USF1 was studied in 118 muscle biopsies before and after a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The risk allele of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2073658 seems to eradicate the inductive effect of insulin on the expression of USF1 in muscle and fat. The expression of numerous target genes is in turn perturbed in adipose tissue.

Conclusions— In risk allele carriers, a defective response of USF1 to insulin results in the suboptimal response of relevant target genes that contributes to the enhanced risk of developing dyslipidemia and coronary heart disease.

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