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Articles by M. M. Veniant
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. M. Veniant
  J Xu , S Stanislaus , N Chinookoswong , Y. Y Lau , T Hager , J Patel , H Ge , J Weiszmann , S. C Lu , M Graham , J Busby , R Hecht , Y. S Li , Y Li , R Lindberg and M. M. Veniant
 

Recombinant fibroblast growth factor (FGF)21 has antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antiobesity effects in diabetic rodent and monkey models. Previous studies were confined to measuring steady-state effects of FGF21 following subchronic or chronic administration. The present study focuses on the kinetics of biological actions of FGF21 following a single injection and on the associated physiological and cellular mechanisms underlying FGF21 actions. We show that FGF21 resulted in rapid decline of blood glucose levels and immediate improvement of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in two animal models of insulin resistance (ob/ob and DIO mice). In ob/ob mice, FGF21 led to a 40–60% decrease in blood glucose, insulin, and amylin levels within 1 h after injection, and the maximal effects were sustained for more than 6 h despite the 1- to 2-h half-life of FGF21. In DIO mice, FGF21 reduced fasting blood glucose and insulin levels and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity within 3 h of treatment. The acute improvement of glucose metabolism was associated with a 30% reduction of hepatic glucose production and an increase in peripheral glucose turnover. FGF21 appeared to have no direct effect on ex vivo pancreatic islet insulin or glucagon secretion. However, it rapidly induced typical FGF signaling in liver and adipose tissues and in several hepatoma-derived cell lines and differentiated adipocytes. FGF21 was able to inhibit glucose release from H4IIE hepatoma cells and stimulate glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We conclude that the acute glucose-lowering and insulin-sensitizing effects of FGF21 are potentially associated with its metabolic actions in liver and adipose tissues.

  W Gu , K. A Winters , A. S Motani , R Komorowski , Y Zhang , Q Liu , X Wu , I. C Rulifson , G Sivits , M Graham , H Yan , P Wang , S Moore , T Meng , R. A Lindberg and M. M. Veniant
 

Antagonism of the glucagon receptor (GCGR) is associated with increased circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). To investigate the contribution of GLP-1 to the antidiabetic actions of GCGR antagonism, we administered an anti-GCGR monoclonal antibody (mAb B) to wild-type mice and GLP-1 receptor knockout (GLP-1R KO) mice. Treatment of wild-type mice with mAb B lowered fasting blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance, and enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT). In contrast, treatment of GLP-1R KO mice with mAb B had little efficacy during an ipGTT. Furthermore, pretreatment with the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9–39) diminished the antihyperglycemic effects of mAb B in wild-type mice. To determine the mechanism whereby mAb B improves glucose tolerance, we generated a monoclonal antibody that specifically antagonizes the human GLP-1R. Using a human islet transplanted mouse model, we demonstrated that pancreatic islet GLP-1R signaling is required for the full efficacy of the GCGR antagonist. To identify the source of the elevated GLP-1 observed in GCGR mAb-treated mice, we measured active GLP-1 content in pancreas and intestine from db/db mice treated with anti-GCGR mAb for 8 wk. Elevated GLP-1 in GCGR mAb-treated mice was predominantly derived from increased pancreatic GLP-1 synthesis and processing. All together, these data show that pancreatic GLP-1 is a significant contributor to the glucose-lowering effects observed in response to GCGR antagonist treatment.

 
 
 
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