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Articles by M. J. Davies
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. J. Davies
  T. C. Skinner , M. E. Carey , S. Cradock , H. M. Dallosso , H. Daly , M. J. Davies , Y. Doherty , S. Heller , K. Khunti and L. Oliver

Aims  To determine whether differences in the amount of time educators talk during a self-management education programme relate to the degree of change in participants` reported beliefs about diabetes.

Method  Educators trained to be facilitative and non-didactic in their approach were observed delivering the DESMOND self-management programme for individuals newly diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Observers used 10-s event coding to estimate the amount of time educators spoke during different sessions in the programme. Facilitative as opposed to didactic delivery was indicated by targets for levels of educator talk set for each session. Targets were based on earlier pilot work. Using the revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and the Diabetes Illness Representations Questionnaire (DIRQ), participants completed measures of: perceived duration of diabetes (timeline IPQ-R), understanding of diabetes (coherence IPQ-R), personal responsibility for influencing diabetes (personal responsibility IPQ-R), seriousness of diabetes (seriousness DIRQ) and impact on daily life (impact DIRQ), before and after the education programme.

Results  Where data from the event coding indicated educators were talking less and meeting targets for being less didactic, a greater change in reported illness beliefs of participants was seen. However, educators struggled to meet targets for most sessions of the programme.

Conclusion  The amount of time educators talk in a self-management programme may provide a practical marker for the effectiveness of the education process, with less educator talk denoting a more facilitative/less didactic approach. This finding has informed subsequent improvements to a comprehensive quality development framework, acknowledging that educators need ongoing support to facilitate change to their normal educational style.

  M. J. Davies , P. K. Thaware , J. R. Tringham , J. Howe , J. Jarvis , V. Johnston , D. L. Kitchener , T. C. Skinner , P. G. McNally and I. G. Lawrence

Aims  To compare combination use of repaglinide, metformin and bedtime Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin with conventional approaches of insulin initiation in patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM).

Methods  Eighty-two patients with T2DM with suboptimal glycaemic control on oral glucose-lowering agents were randomized to one of three treatment regimens for 4 months. Group 1 received metformin and twice daily biphasic 30/70 human insulin mixture (n = 27), group 2 metformin and bedtime NPH insulin (n = 26) and group 3 metformin, bedtime NPH insulin and mealtime repaglinide (n = 25).

Results  Seventy-five patients completed the study. Baseline and end-point mean HbA1c levels fell from 9.0 ± 1.1 to 7.9 ± 1.1% in group 1, 10.0 ± 2.2 to 9.2 ± 1.4% group 2 and 10.0 ± 1.7 to 8.1 ± 1.5% in group 3, respectively. All groups showed improvements in HbA1c. There was no significant difference between groups in the proportions of patients experiencing hypoglycaemia (29.6, 25.0 and 16.7%, respectively; P = 0.55) or in mean weight gain (2.9, 0.7 and 2.2 kg, respectively; P = 0.06). By 4 months, insulin doses were 0.63 ± 0.32 IU/kg in group 1, 0.58 ± 0.21 IU/kg in group 2 and 0.37 ± 0.22 IU/kg in group 3 (group 3 vs. groups 1 and 2: P < 0.002).

Conclusions  The approach using repaglinide, metformin and NPH insulin improved glycaemic control with a similar safety profile to conventional insulin initiation in T2DM and produced final glycaemic control similar to metformin and a twice daily biphasic insulin mixture.

  S. A. Mostafa , M. J. Davies , D. Webb , L. J. Gray , B. T Srinivasan , J. Jarvis and K. Khunti
  Aims There are calls to simplify the diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to reduce the burden of undiagnosed disease. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is therefore being considered as a preferred diagnostic tool to replace the need for an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), considered by many as cumbersome and inconvenient. The aim of this study was to examine the potential impact of the preferred use of HbA1c as a diagnostic tool on the prevalence and phenotype of T2DM.
Methods Analysis of the Leicester Ethnic Atherosclerosis and Diabetes Risk (LEADER) cohort for previously undiagnosed individuals between 40 and 75 years of age who had OGTT, repeated if within the diabetes range, and HbA1c results. We compared the prevalence and phenotype of subjects with T2DM based on either HbA1c≥6.5% or OGTT using 1999 World Health Organization criteria.
Results From the total population of 8696, we detected 291 (3.3%) with T2DM from using an OGTT, and 502 (5.8%) had HbA1c≥6.5%. Of those diagnosed with T2DM by OGTT, 93 (1.2%) had HbA1c <6.5% and therefore would not have been classified as having T2DM using proposed criteria. Using HbA1c criteria resulted in 304 (3.5%) additional cases of T2DM, approximately doubling the prevalence. Of these 304 additional people, 172 (56.7%) had impaired glucose tolerance/impaired fasting glycaemia according to 1999 World Health Organization criteria. Using HbA1c criteria there was an increase of 2.2- and 1.4-fold in south Asians and white Europeans detected, respectively.
Conclusions Within this multi-ethnic cohort, we found that introducing HbA1c≥6.5% as the preferred diagnostic test to diagnose T2DM significantly increased numbers detected with T2DM; however, some people were no longer detected as having T2DM.
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