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Articles by M. J Travers
Total Records ( 4 ) for M. J Travers
  G. N Connolly , C. M Carpenter , M. J Travers , K. M Cummings , A Hyland , M Mulcahy and L. Clancy
  Introduction

The present study examined indoor air quality in a global sample of smoke-free and smoking-permitted Irish pubs. We hypothesized that levels of respirable suspended particles, an important marker of secondhand smoke, would be significantly lower in smoke-free Irish pubs than in pubs that allowed smoking.

Methods

Indoor air quality was assessed in 128 Irish pubs in 15 countries between 21 January 2004 and 10 March 2006. Air quality was evaluated using an aerosol monitor, which measures the level of fine particle (PM2.5) pollution in the air. A standard measurement protocol was used by data collectors across study sites.

Results

Overall, the level of air pollution inside smoke-free Irish pubs was 93% lower than the level found in pubs where smoking was permitted.

Discussion

Levels of indoor air pollution can be massively reduced by enacting and enforcing smoke-free policies.

  A Hyland , C Higbee , M. J Travers , A Van Deusen , M Bansal Travers , B King and K. M. Cummings
  Introduction

The present study reports on the prevalence of smoke-free homes, the characteristics of participants who adopted a smoke-free home policy, and the association between smoke-free homes and subsequent predictors of smoking cessation.

Methods

Data are reported on 4,963 individuals who originally participated in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation between 1988 and 1993 and completed follow-up surveys in 2001 and 2005. The relationship between home smoking policy and smoking behavior was examined with a multivariate regression model.

Results

Among those who were smokers at the 2001 follow-up, the percentage reporting that no smoking was allowed in their home increased from 29% in 2001 to 38% in 2005. Smokers most likely to adopt smoke-free home policies between 2001 and 2005 were males, former smokers, and those who had lower levels of daily cigarette consumption (among those who continued to smoke), those with higher annual household incomes, and those with no other smokers in the household. Some 28% of smokers with smoke-free homes in 2001 reported that they had quit smoking by 2005 compared with 16% of those who allowed smoking in their homes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.2), and baseline quitters with smoke-free homes also were less likely to relapse (OR = 0.6, 95% CI = 0.4–0.8).

Discussion

Smoke-free homes are becoming more prevalent, and they are a powerful tool not only to help smokers stop smoking but also to help keep those who quit from relapsing back to smoking.

  T Sendzik , G. T Fong , M. J Travers and A. Hyland
  Introduction

Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size.

Methods

The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (<2.5 microns in diameter or PM2.5) under a variety of in vivo conditions. Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences.

Results

Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM2.5: more than 3,800 µg/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM2.5 were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 µg/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 µg/m3).

Discussion

This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children.

  A Van Deusen , A Hyland , M. J Travers , C Wang , C Higbee , B. A King , T Alford and K. M. Cummings
 

With the increasing normative trend of clean indoor air laws prohibiting smoking in public places such as worksites and restaurants, the home is becoming the primary source of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. However, little empirical data indicate how SHS is distributed throughout homes and whether smoking in segregated areas offers protection. This project studied real-time data on levels of SHS in 9 homes in which smoking was permitted and in 3 smoke-free homes. Active sampling monitors were used to assess levels of PM2.5, a marker for SHS, over a 3-day period. In smoking homes, one monitor was placed in the primary smoking area and another in a distal location, where smoking generally did not occur. Participants logged smoking and other activities that could affect air quality. In smoking homes, without assuming normality, the mean PM2.5 level for the primary smoking areas was statistically significantly higher than that for distal areas (84 and 63 µg/m3, respectively). Both levels far surpassed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's annual standard of 15 µg/m3 for outdoor air quality. By contrast, the smoke-free home mean was 9 µg/m3, similar to outdoor air quality. These results suggest that the air in smoking homes was several times more polluted than that in smoke-free homes, regardless of where the measurements were taken, meaning that efforts to confine smoking to only part of the home offer no protection for people anywhere inside the home. Household members can be protected by implementing a smoke-free home policy.

 
 
 
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