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Articles by M. J Smyth
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. J Smyth
  R. D Kuns , E. S Morris , K. P. A MacDonald , K. A Markey , H. M Morris , N. C Raffelt , T Banovic , A. L. J Don , V Rowe , A. C Burman , A. D Clouston , C Farah , G. S Besra , P. A Illarionov , M. J Smyth , S. A Porcelli and G. R. Hill
 

Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) have pivotal roles in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects. iNKT cells are activated through their T-cell receptors by glycolipid moieties (typically the -galactosylceramide [-GalCer] derivative KRN7000) presented within CD1d. We investigated the ability of modified -GalCer molecules to differentially modulate alloreactivity and GVL. KRN7000 and the N-acyl variant, C20:2, were administered in multiple well-established murine models of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The highly potent and specific activation of all type I NKT cells with C20:2 failed to exacerbate and in most settings inhibited GVHD late after transplantation, whereas effects on GVL were variable. In contrast, the administration of KRN7000 induced hyperacute GVHD and early mortality in all models tested. Administration of KRN7000, but not C20:2, was found to result in downstream interleukin (IL)-12 and dendritic cell (DC)–dependent natural killer (NK)– and conventional T-cell activation. Specific depletion of host DCs, IL-12, or donor NK cells prevented this pathogenic response and the induction of hyperacute GVHD. These data demonstrate the ability of profound iNKT activation to modulate both the innate and adaptive immune response via the DC–NK-cell interaction and raise concern for the use of -GalCer therapeutically to modulate GVHD and GVL effects.

  M. A Linterman , L Beaton , D Yu , R. R Ramiscal , M Srivastava , J. J Hogan , N. K Verma , M. J Smyth , R. J Rigby and C. G. Vinuesa
 

During T cell–dependent responses, B cells can either differentiate extrafollicularly into short-lived plasma cells or enter follicles to form germinal centers (GCs). Interactions with T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are required for GC formation and for selection of somatically mutated GC B cells. Interleukin (IL)-21 has been reported to play a role in Tfh cell formation and in B cell growth, survival, and isotype switching. To date, it is unclear whether the effect of IL-21 on GC formation is predominantly a consequence of this cytokine acting directly on the Tfh cells or if IL-21 directly influences GC B cells. We show that IL-21 acts in a B cell–intrinsic fashion to control GC B cell formation. Mixed bone marrow chimeras identified a significant B cell–autonomous effect of IL-21 receptor (R) signaling throughout all stages of the GC response. IL-21 deficiency profoundly impaired affinity maturation and reduced the proportion of IgG1+ GC B cells but did not affect formation of early memory B cells. IL-21R was required on GC B cells for maximal expression of Bcl-6. In contrast to the requirement for IL-21 in the follicular response to sheep red blood cells, a purely extrafollicular antibody response to Salmonella dominated by IgG2a was intact in the absence of IL-21.

  D Zotos , J. M Coquet , Y Zhang , A Light , K D'Costa , A Kallies , L. M Corcoran , D. I Godfrey , K. M Toellner , M. J Smyth , S. L Nutt and D. M. Tarlinton
 

Germinal centers (GCs) are sites of B cell proliferation, somatic hypermutation, and selection of variants with improved affinity for antigen. Long-lived memory B cells and plasma cells are also generated in GCs, although how B cell differentiation in GCs is regulated is unclear. IL-21, secreted by T follicular helper cells, is important for adaptive immune responses, although there are conflicting reports on its target cells and mode of action in vivo. We show that the absence of IL-21 signaling profoundly affects the B cell response to protein antigen, reducing splenic and bone marrow plasma cell formation and GC persistence and function, influencing their proliferation, transition into memory B cells, and affinity maturation. Using bone marrow chimeras, we show that these activities are primarily a result of CD3-expressing cells producing IL-21 that acts directly on B cells. Molecularly, IL-21 maintains expression of Bcl-6 in GC B cells. The absence of IL-21 or IL-21 receptor does not abrogate the appearance of T cells in GCs or the appearance of CD4 T cells with a follicular helper phenotype. IL-21 thus controls fate choices of GC B cells directly.

 
 
 
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