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Articles by M. J Quon
Total Records ( 4 ) for M. J Quon
  M. A Potenza , S Gagliardi , L De Benedictis , A Zigrino , E Tiravanti , G Colantuono , A Federici , L Lorusso , V Benagiano , M. J Quon and M. Montagnani

Oxidative stress contributes to cardiovascular complications of diabetes, in part, by reducing the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). We investigated the mechanisms whereby the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone may ameliorate oxidative stress in the vasculature of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Nine-week-old SHR were treated by gavage for 7 wk with rosiglitazone (5 mg·kg–1·day–1) or vehicle control. Treatment of SHR with rosiglitazone lowered systolic blood pressure, reduced fasting plasma insulin and asymmetrical dimethylarginine, and increased insulin sensitivity (when compared with vehicle treatment). In vessel homogenates and serum from rosiglitazone-treated SHR, SOD activity was enhanced, while 8-iso-PGF2 (lipid peroxidation product) was reduced (when compared with samples from vehicle-treated SHR). Moreover, expression of p22phox (catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase) as well as nitrotyrosine and superoxide content were all reduced in the aortas of rosiglitazone-treated SHR. In mesenteric vascular beds (MVB) isolated ex vivo from rosiglitazone-treated SHR, NO-dependent vasodilator actions of insulin were improved when compared with MVB from vehicle-treated SHR. Acute pretreatment of MVB from vehicle-treated SHR with apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) enhanced vasodilator actions of insulin (results comparable to those in MVB from rosiglitazone-treated SHR). In Langendorff heart preparations from rosiglitazone-treated SHR, ischemia/reperfusion injury caused infarcts 40% smaller than in hearts from vehicle-treated SHR. Acute pretreatment of hearts from vehicle-treated SHR with apocynin produced similar results. Finally, rosiglitazone treatment of endothelial cells in primary culture reduced superoxide induced by insulin-resistant conditions. We conclude that rosiglitazone therapy in SHR increases SOD activity and decreases p22phox expression in the vasculature to reduce oxidant stress leading to an improved cardiovascular phenotype.

  P Singal , R Muniyappa , R Chisholm , G Hall , H Chen , M. J Quon and K. J. Mather

After a constant insulin infusion is initiated, determination of steady-state conditions for glucose infusion rates (GIR) typically requires ≥3 h. The glucose infusion follows a simple time-dependent rise, reaching a plateau at steady state. We hypothesized that nonlinear fitting of abbreviated data sets consisting of only the early portion of the clamp study can provide accurate estimates of steady-state GIR. Data sets from two independent laboratories were used to develop and validate this approach. Accuracy of the predicted steady-state GDR was assessed using regression analysis and Altman-Bland plots, and precision was compared by applying a calibration model. In the development data set (n = 88 glucose clamp studies), fitting the full data set with a simple monoexponential model predicted reference GDR values with good accuracy (difference between the 2 methods –0.37 mg·kg–1·min–1) and precision [root mean square error (RMSE) = 1.11], validating the modeling procedure. Fitting data from the first 180 or 120 min predicted final GDRs with comparable accuracy but with progressively reduced precision [fitGDR-180 RMSE = 1.27 (P = NS vs. fitGDR-full); fitGDR-120 RMSE = 1.56 (P < 0.001)]. Similar results were obtained with the validation data set (n = 183 glucose clamp studies), confirming the generalizability of this approach. The modeling approach also derives kinetic parameters that are not available from standard approaches to clamp data analysis. We conclude that fitting a monoexponential curve to abbreviated clamp data produces steady-state GDR values that accurately predict the GDR values obtained from the full data sets, albeit with reduced precision. This approach may help reduce the resources required for undertaking clamp studies.

  R Muniyappa , B. A Irving , U. S Unni , W. M Briggs , K. S Nair , M. J Quon and A. V. Kurpad

Insulin resistance is highly prevalent in Asian Indians and contributes to worldwide public health problems, including diabetes and related disorders. Surrogate measurements of insulin sensitivity/resistance are used frequently to study Asian Indians, but these are not formally validated in this population. In this study, we compared the ability of simple surrogate indices to accurately predict insulin sensitivity as determined by the reference glucose clamp method. In this cross-sectional study of Asian-Indian men (n = 70), we used a calibration model to assess the ability of simple surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity [quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR), fasting insulin-to-glucose ratio (FIGR), and fasting insulin (FI)] to predict an insulin sensitivity index derived from the reference glucose clamp method (SIClamp). Predictive accuracy was assessed by both root mean squared error (RMSE) of prediction as well as leave-one-out cross-validation-type RMSE of prediction (CVPE). QUICKI, FIGR, and FI, but not HOMA2-IR, had modest linear correlations with SIClamp (QUICKI: r = 0.36; FIGR: r = –0.36; FI: r = –0.27; P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted among CVPE or RMSE from any of the surrogate indices when compared with QUICKI. Surrogate measurements of insulin sensitivity/resistance such as QUICKI, FIGR, and FI are easily obtainable in large clinical studies, but these may only be useful as secondary outcome measurements in assessing insulin sensitivity/resistance in clinical studies of Asian Indians.

  K Tanigaki , C Mineo , I. S Yuhanna , K. L Chambliss , M. J Quon , E Bonvini and P. W. Shaul

Insulin promotes the cardiovascular protective functions of the endothelium including NO production by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), which it stimulates via Akt kinase which phosphorylates eNOS Ser1179. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant that is positively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. We previously showed that CRP inhibits eNOS activation by insulin by blunting Ser1179 phosphorylation. We now elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. We first show in mice that CRP inhibits insulin-induced eNOS phosphorylation, indicating that these processes are operative in vivo. In endothelial cells we find that CRP attenuates insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation, and CRP antagonism of eNOS is negated by expression of constitutively active Akt; the inhibitory effect of CRP on Akt is also observed in vivo. A requirement for the IgG receptor FcRIIB was demonstrated in vitro using blocking antibody, and reconstitution experiments with wild-type and mutant FcRIIB in NIH3T3IR cells revealed that these processes require the ITIM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif) of the receptor. Furthermore, we find that endothelium express SHIP-1 (Src homology 2 domain–containing inositol 5'-phosphatase 1), that CRP induces SHIP-1 stimulatory phosphorylation in endothelium in culture and in vivo, and that SHIP-1 knockdown by small interfering RNA prevents CRP antagonism of insulin-induced eNOS activation. Thus, CRP inhibits eNOS stimulation by insulin via FcRIIB and its ITIM, SHIP-1 activation, and resulting blunted activation of Akt. These findings provide mechanistic linkage among CRP, impaired insulin signaling in endothelium, and greater cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes.

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