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Articles by M. J Lee
Total Records ( 8 ) for M. J Lee
  M. J Lee and S. K. Fried
 

This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the pre- and posttranscriptional mechanisms that regulate leptin production and secretion in adipocytes. Basal leptin production is proportional to the status of energy stores, i.e., fat cell size, and this is mainly regulated by alterations in leptin mRNA levels. Leptin mRNA levels are regulated by hormones, including glucocorticoids and catecholamines, but little is known about the transcriptional mechanisms involved. Leptin synthesis and secretion is also acutely modulated in response to hormones such as insulin and the availability of metabolic fuels. Acute variations in leptin production over a time course of minutes to hours are mediated at the levels of both translation and secretion. Increases in amino acids and insulin after a meal activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, leading to an increase in specific rates of leptin biosynthesis. Cross-talk among mTOR, PKA, and AMP-activated protein kinase pathways appears to integrate hormonal and nutrient signals that regulate leptin mRNA translation, at least in part through mechanisms involving its 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions. In addition, the rate of leptin secretion from preformed stores in response to hormonal cues is also regulated. Insulin stimulates, and adrenergic agonists inhibit, leptin secretion, and this likely contributes to variations in the magnitude of nutrition-related leptin excursions and oscillations. Overall, the study of leptin production has contributed to a deepening understanding of leptin biology and, more broadly, to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which the adipocyte integrates hormonal and nutrient signals to regulate adipokine production.

  G Lu , H Xiao , G. X Li , S. C Picinich , Y. K Chen , A Liu , M. J Lee , S Loy and C. S. Yang
 

The present study investigated the effects of a preparation of a -tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (-TmT) on chemically induced lung tumorigenesis in female A/J mice and the growth of H1299 human lung cancer cell xenograft tumors. In the A/J mouse model, the lung tumors were induced by either 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK; intraperitoneal injections with 100 and 75 mg/kg on Week 1 and 2, respectively) or NNK plus benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (8 weekly gavages of 2 µmole each from Week 1 to 8). The NNK plus B[a]P treatment induced 21 tumors per lung on Week 19; dietary 0.3% -TmT treatment during the entire experimental period significantly lowered tumor multiplicity, tumor volume and tumor burden (by 30, 50 and 55%, respectively; P < 0.05). For three groups of mice treated with NNK alone, the -TmT diet was given during the initiation stage (Week 0 to 3), post-initiation stage (Week 3 to 19) or the entire experimental period, and the tumor multiplicity was reduced by 17.8, 19.7 or 29.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). -TmT treatment during the tumor initiation stage or throughout the entire period of the experiment also significantly reduced tumor burden (by 36 or 43%, respectively). In the xenograft tumor model of human lung cancer H1299 cells in NCr-nu/nu mice, 0.3% dietary -TmT treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and tumor weight by 56 and 47%, respectively (P < 0.05). In both the carcinogenesis and tumor growth models, the inhibitory action of -TmT was associated with enhanced apoptosis and lowered levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine, -H2AX and nitrotyrosine in the tumors of the -TmT-treated mice. In cell culture, the growth of H1299 cells was inhibited by tocopherols with their effectiveness following the order of -T > -TmT > -T, whereas -T was not effective. These results demonstrate the inhibitory effect of -TmT against lung tumorigenesis and the growth of xenograft tumors of human lung cancer cells. The inhibitory activity may be due mainly to the actions of -T and -T.

  G. X Li , Y. K Chen , Z Hou , H Xiao , H Jin , G Lu , M. J Lee , B Liu , F Guan , Z Yang , A Yu and C. S. Yang
 

(–)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenol in green tea, has been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth in animal models. Nevertheless, the dose–response relationship of the inhibitory activity in vivo has not been systematically characterized. The present studies were conducted to address these issues, as well as the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in the inhibitory action of EGCG in vivo and in vitro. We characterized the inhibitory actions of EGCG against human lung cancer H1299 cells in culture and in xenograft tumors. The growth of tumors was dose dependently inhibited by EGCG at doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% in the diet. Tumor cell apoptosis and oxidative DNA damage, assessed by the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and phosphorylated histone 2A variant X (-H2AX), were dose dependently increased by EGCG treatment. However, the levels of 8-OHdG and -H2AX were not changed by the EGCG treatment in host organs. In culture, the growth of viable H1299 cells was dose dependently reduced by EGCG; the estimated concentration that causes 50% inhibition (IC50) (20 µM) was much higher than the IC50 (0.15 µM) observed in vivo. The action of EGCG was mostly abolished by the presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, which decompose the ROS formed in the culture medium. Treatment with EGCG also caused the generation of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial ROS. Although EGCG is generally considered to be an antioxidant, the present study demonstrates the pro-oxidative activities of EGCG in vivo and in vitro in the described experimental system.

  H. J Lee , J Ju , S Paul , J. Y So , A DeCastro , A Smolarek , M. J Lee , C. S Yang , H. L Newmark and N. Suh
 

Purpose: Tocopherols are lipophilic antioxidants present in vegetable oils. Although the antioxidant and anticancer activities of -tocopherol (vitamin E) have been studied for decades, recent intervention studies with -tocopherol have been negative for protection from cancer in humans. The tocopherols consist of four isoforms, which are the , β, , and variants, and recent attention is being given to other isoforms. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a tocopherol mixture rich in - and -tocopherols against mammary tumorigenesis.

Experimental Design: Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU), and then fed diets containing 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols rich in - and -tocopherols for 9 weeks. Tumor burden and multiplicity were determined, and the levels of markers of inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated in the serum and in mammary tumors. The regulation of nuclear receptor signaling by tocopherols was studied in mammary tumors and in breast cancer cells.

Results: Dietary administration of 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% mixed tocopherols suppressed mammary tumor growth by 38%, 50%, or 80%, respectively. Tumor multiplicity was also significantly reduced in all three mixed tocopherol groups. Mixed tocopherols increased the expression of p21, p27, caspase-3, and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-, and inhibited AKT and estrogen signaling in mammary tumors. Our mechanistic study found that - and -tocopherols, but not -tocopherol, activated peroxisome proliferator activated receptor- and antagonized estrogen action in breast cancer.

Conclusion: The results suggest that - and -tocopherols may be effective agents for the prevention of breast cancer.

  H. C Ku , H. H Chang , H. C Liu , C. H Hsiao , M. J Lee , Y. J Hu , P. F Hung , C. W Liu and Y. H. Kao
 

Insulin and (–)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been reported to regulate fat cell mitogenesis and adipogenesis, respectively. This study investigated the pathways involved in EGCG modulation of insulin-stimulated mitogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. EGCG inhibited insulin stimulation of preadipocyte proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. EGCG also suppressed insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-β, insulin receptor (IR) substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1 and IRS2), and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway proteins, RAF1, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2, but not JNK. Furthermore, EGCG inhibited the association of IR with the IRS1 and IRS2 proteins, but not with the IRS4 protein. These data suggest that EGCG selectively affects particular types of IRS and MAPK family members. Generally, EGCG was more effective than epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin in modulating insulin-stimulated mitogenic signaling. We identified the EGCG receptor [also known as the 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR)] in fat cells and found that its expression was sensitive to growth phase, tissue type, and differentiation state. Pretreatment of preadipocytes with 67LR antiserum prevented the effects of EGCG on insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS2, RAF1, and ERK1/2 and insulin-stimulated preadipocyte proliferation (cell number and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation). Moreover, EGCG tended to increase insulin-stimulated associations between the 67LR and IR, IRS1, IRS2, and IRS4 proteins. These data suggest that EGCG mediates anti-insulin signaling in preadipocyte mitogenesis via the 67LR pathway.

 
 
 
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