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Articles by M. J Gilchrist
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. J Gilchrist
  J Armisen , M. J Gilchrist , A Wilczynska , N Standart and E. A. Miska

Small regulatory RNAs have recently emerged as key regulators of eukaryotic gene expression. Here we used high-throughput sequencing to determine small RNA populations in the germline and soma of the African clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis. We identified a number of miRNAs that were expressed in the female germline. miRNA expression profiling revealed that miR-202-5p is an oocyte-enriched miRNA. We identified two novel miRNAs that were expressed in the soma. In addition, we sequenced large numbers of Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs) and other endogenous small RNAs, likely representing endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). Of these, only piRNAs were restricted to the germline, suggesting that endo-siRNAs are an abundant class of small RNAs in the vertebrate soma. In the germline, both endogenous small RNAs and piRNAs mapped to many high copy number loci. Furthermore, endogenous small RNAs mapped to the same specific subsets of repetitive elements in both the soma and the germline, suggesting that these RNAs might act to silence repetitive elements in both compartments. Data presented here suggest a conserved role for miRNAs in the vertebrate germline. Furthermore, this study provides a basis for the functional analysis of small regulatory RNAs in an important vertebrate model system.

  O Tassy , D Dauga , F Daian , D Sobral , F Robin , P Khoueiry , D Salgado , V Fox , D Caillol , R Schiappa , B Laporte , A Rios , G Luxardi , T Kusakabe , J. S Joly , S Darras , L Christiaen , M Contensin , H Auger , C Lamy , C Hudson , U Rothbacher , M. J Gilchrist , K. W Makabe , K Hotta , S Fujiwara , N Satoh , Y Satou and P. Lemaire

Developmental biology aims to understand how the dynamics of embryonic shapes and organ functions are encoded in linear DNA molecules. Thanks to recent progress in genomics and imaging technologies, systemic approaches are now used in parallel with small-scale studies to establish links between genomic information and phenotypes, often described at the subcellular level. Current model organism databases, however, do not integrate heterogeneous data sets at different scales into a global view of the developmental program. Here, we present a novel, generic digital system, NISEED, and its implementation, ANISEED, to ascidians, which are invertebrate chordates suitable for developmental systems biology approaches. ANISEED hosts an unprecedented combination of anatomical and molecular data on ascidian development. This includes the first detailed anatomical ontologies for these embryos, and quantitative geometrical descriptions of developing cells obtained from reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) embryos up to the gastrula stages. Fully annotated gene model sets are linked to 30,000 high-resolution spatial gene expression patterns in wild-type and experimentally manipulated conditions and to 528 experimentally validated cis-regulatory regions imported from specialized databases or extracted from 160 literature articles. This highly structured data set can be explored via a Developmental Browser, a Genome Browser, and a 3D Virtual Embryo module. We show how integration of heterogeneous data in ANISEED can provide a system-level understanding of the developmental program through the automatic inference of gene regulatory interactions, the identification of inducing signals, and the discovery and explanation of novel asymmetric divisions.

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