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Articles by M. H Shishehbor
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. H Shishehbor
  C. G Koch , L Li , G. A Kaplan , J Wachterman , M. H Shishehbor , J Sabik and E. H. Blackstone

Background— Health disparities have been associated with the prevalence of cardiovascular disease. In cardiac surgery, association has been found between race, sex, and poorer prognosis after surgery. However, there is a complex interplay between race, sex, and socioeconomic position (SEP). In our investigation we sought to identify which of these was the driver of risk-adjusted survival.

Methods and Results— From January 1, 1995, and December 30, 2005, 23 330 patients (15 156 white men, 6932 white women, 678 black men, and 564 black women) underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, valve, or combined coronary artery bypass grafting and valve procedures. Median follow-up was 5.8 years (25th and 75th percentiles: 3 and 8.6 years). Effect of race, sex, and SEP on all-cause mortality was examined with 2-phase Cox model and generalized propensity score technique. As expected, blacks and women had lower SEP as compared with whites and men for all 6 SEP indicators. Patients with lower SEP had more atherosclerotic disease burden, more comorbidity, and were more symptomatic. Lower SEP was associated with a risk-adjusted dose-dependent reduction in survival after surgery (men, P<0.0001; women, P=0.0079), but black race, once adjusted for SEP, was not.

Conclusions— Our large investigation demonstrates that disparities in SEP are present and significantly affect health outcomes. Although race per se was not the driver for reduced survival, patients of low SEP were predominantly represented by blacks and women. Socioeconomically disadvantaged patients had significantly higher risk-adjusted mortality after surgery. Further investigation and targeted intervention should focus specifically on patients of low SEP, their health behaviors, and secondary prevention efforts.

  E. Z Gorodeski , E. C Chu , J. R Reese , M. H Shishehbor , E Hsich and R. C. Starling

Background— There are no published clinical trials comparing dobutamine with milrinone in outpatients with stage D heart failure on continuous inotropes.

Methods and Results— In a retrospective analysis of 112 inotrope-dependent patients with stage D heart failure who were not transplant candidates at enrollment, we investigated the relationship between choice of dobutamine or milrinone and mortality. Half the patients were on dobutamine (mean dose, 5.4±2.5 µg/kg per minute) and half on milrinone (mean dose, 0.4±0.2 µg/kg per minute). Those on dobutamine tended to be older (63 years old versus 54 years old), male (86% versus 79%), and fewer had implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (57% versus 74%). During a median follow-up time of 130 days (range, 2 to 2345 days), there were 85 deaths (76% of cohort) and 55 rehospitalizations. Use of dobutamine compared with milrinone was associated with higher all-cause mortality in an unadjusted analysis (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.52; P<0.03). However, this association was not significant after adjustment for baseline characteristics in the full cohort (N=112; HR, 0.99; 95% CI 0.5 to 1.97; P=0.98) or propensity-matched cohort (N=70; HR, 0.94; 95% CI 0.48 to 1.85; P=0.86).

Conclusions— In this single-center retrospective study, there were no mortality differences between chronic intravenous dobutamine or milrinone in patients with stage D heart failure being discharged from the hospital. The high mortality in this group selected for inotrope dependence warrants careful consideration of all options and priorities for further care.

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