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Articles by M. H Picard
Total Records ( 5 ) for M. H Picard
  J Solis , D McCarty , R. A Levine , M. D Handschumacher , L Fernandez Friera , A Chen Tournoux , L Mont , B Vidal , J. P Singh , J Brugada , M. H Picard , M Sitges and J. Hung

Background— Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to reduce functional mitral regurgitation (MR). It has been proposed that the mechanism of MR reduction relates to geometric change or, alternatively, changes in left ventricular (LV) contractile function. Normal mitral valve (MV) function relies on a balance between tethering and closing forces on the MV leaflets. Functional MR results from a derangement of this force–balance relationship, and CRT may be an important modulator of MV function by its ability to enhance the force–balance relationship on the MV. We hypothesized that CRT improves the comprehensive force balance acting on the valve, including favorable changes in both geometry and LV contractile function.

Methods and Results— We examined the effect of CRT on 34 patients with functional MR before and after CRT (209±81 days). MR regurgitant volume, closing forces on MV (derived from Doppler transmitral pressure gradients), including dP/dt and a factor (closing pressure ratio) expressing how long the peak closing gradient is maintained over systole (closing pressure ratio=velocity time integral/MR peak velocityxmitral regurgitation time), and dyssynchrony by tissue Doppler were measured. End-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, mitral valve annular area (MAA) and contraction (percent change in MAA from end-diastole to midsystole), leaflet closing area (leaflet area during valve closure), and tenting volume (volume under leaflets to annular plane) were measured by 3D echocardiography. After CRT, end-diastolic volume (253±111 versus 221±110 mL, P<0.001) and end-systolic volume (206±97 versus 167±91 mL, P<0.001) decreased and ejection fraction (19±6 versus 27±9%, P<0.001) increased. MR regurgitant volume decreased from 35±17 to 23±14 mL (P<0.001), MAA from 11.6±3.5 to 10.5±3.1 cm2 (P<0.001), leaflet closing area from 15.4±5 to 13.7±3.8 cm2 (P<0.001), and tenting volume from 5.7±2.6 to 4.6±2.2 mL (P<0.001). Peak velocity (and therefore transmitral closing pressure) was more sustained throughout systole, as reflected by the increase in the closing pressure ratio (0.77±0.1 versus 0.84±0.1 before CRT versus after CRT, P=0.01); dP/dt also improved after CRT. There was no change in dyssynchrony or MAA contraction.

Conclusions— Reduction in MR after CRT is associated with favorable changes in MV geometry and closing forces on the MV. It does so by favorably affecting the force balance acting on the MV in 2 ways: reducing tethering through reversal of LV remodeling and increasing the systolic duration of peak transmitral closing pressures.

  R. B Weiner , A. E Weyman , A. M Khan , J. S Reingold , A. A Chen Tournoux , M Scherrer Crosbie , M. H Picard , T. J Wang and A. L. Baggish

Left ventricular (LV) rotation results from contraction of obliquely oriented myocardial fibers. The net difference between systolic apical counterclockwise rotation and basal clockwise rotation is left ventricular torsion (LVT). Although LVT is altered in various cardiac diseases, determinants of LVT are incompletely understood.

Methods and Results—

LV end-diastolic volume, LV apical and basal rotation, peak systolic LVT, and peak early diastolic untwisting rate were measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography in healthy subjects (n=8) before and after infusion of a weight-based normal saline bolus (2.1±0.3 L). Saline infusion led to a significant increase in end-diastolic LV internal diameter (45.9±3.7 versus 47.6±4.2 mm; P=0.002) and LV end-diastolic volume (90.0±21.6 versus 98.3±19.6 mL; P=0.01). Stroke volume (51.3±10.9 versus 63.0±15.5 mL; P=0.003) and cardiac output (3.4±0.8 versus 4.4±1.5 L/min; P=0.007) increased, whereas there was no change in heart rate and blood pressure. There was a significant increase in the magnitude of peak systolic apical rotation (7.5±2.4° versus 10.5±2.8°; P<0.001) but no change in basal rotation (–4.1±2.3° versus –4.8±3.1°; P=0.44). Accordingly, peak systolic LVT increased by 33% after saline infusion (11.2±1.3° versus 14.9±1.7°; P<0.001). This saline-induced increase in LVT was associated with a marked increase in peak early diastolic untwisting rate (72.3±21.4 versus 136.8±30.0 degrees/s; P<0.001).


Peak systolic LVT and peak early diastolic untwisting rate are preload-dependent. Changes in LV preload should be considered when interpreting results of future LVT studies.

  R. V Shah , A. A Chen Tournoux , M. H Picard , R. R.J van Kimmenade and J. L. Januzzi

Background— ST2, a biomarker of cardiomyocyte stretch, powerfully predicts poor outcomes in patients with acute dyspnea, but nothing is known about associations between soluble ST2 (sST2) and cardiac structure and function, or whether sST2 retains prognostic meaning in the context of such measures.

Methods and Results— One hundred thirty-four dyspneic patients with and without decompensated heart failure had echocardiography during index admission and vital status was ascertained at 4 years. Echocardiographic and clinical correlates of sST2 as well as independent predictors of death at 4 years were identified. sST2 correlated with left ventricular end-systolic dimensions/volumes and left ventricular ejection fraction. sST2 was inversely associated with right ventricular fractional area change (=–0.18; P=0.046), higher right ventricular systolic pressure (=0.26; P=0.005), and right ventricular hypokinesis (P<0.001) and was correlated with tissue Doppler Ea wave peak velocity, but not to other indices of diastolic function. In multivariate regression, independent predictors of sST2 included right ventricular systolic pressure (t=2.29; P=0.002), left ventricular ejection fraction (t=–2.15; P=0.05) and dimensions (end systolic, t=2.57; end diastolic, t=2.98; both P<0.05), amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (t=3.31; P=0.009), heart rate (t=2.59; P=0.01), and presence of jugular venous distension (t=2.00; P=0.05). In a Cox proportional hazards model that included echocardiographic results and other biomarkers, sST2 independently predicted death at 4 years (hazard ratio=2.70; P=0.003).

Conclusions— Among dyspneic patients with and without acute heart failure, sST2 concentrations are associated with prevalent cardiac abnormalities on echocardiography, a more decompensated hemodynamic profile and are associated with long-term mortality, independent of echocardiographic, clinical, or other biochemical markers of risk.

  A. L Baggish , R. B Weiner , G Kanayama , J. I Hudson , M. H Picard , A. M Hutter and H. G. Pope

Although illicit anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is widespread, the cardiac effects of long-term AAS use remain inadequately characterized. We compared cardiac parameters in weightlifters reporting long-term AAS use to those in otherwise similar weightlifters without prior AAS exposure.

Methods and Results—

We performed 2D tissue-Doppler and speckle-tracking echocardiography to assess left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV systolic strain, and conventional indices of diastolic function in long-term AAS users (n=12) and otherwise similar AAS nonusers (n=7). AAS users (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] cumulative lifetime AAS exposure, 468 [169, 520] weeks) closely resembled nonusers in age, prior duration of weightlifting, and current intensity of weight training. LV structural parameters were similar between the two groups; however, AAS users had significantly lower LV ejection fraction (50.6% [48.4, 53.6] versus 59.1% [58.0%, 61.7%]; P=0.003 by two-tailed Wilcoxon rank sum test), longitudinal strain (16.9% [14.0%, 19.0%] versus 21.0% [20.2%, 22.9%]; P=0.004), and radial strain (38.3% [28.5%, 43.7%] versus 50.1% [44.3%, 61.8%]; P=0.02). Ten of the 12 AAS users showed LV ejection fractions below the accepted limit of normal (≥55%). AAS users also demonstrated decreased diastolic function compared to nonusers as evidenced by a markedly lower early peak tissue velocity (7.4 [6.8, 7.9] cm/s versus 9.9 [8.3, 10.5] cm/s; P=0.005) and early-to-late diastolic filling ratio (0.93 [0.88, 1.39] versus 1.80 [1.48, 2.00]; P=0.003).


Cardiac dysfunction in long-term AAS users appears to be more severe than previously reported and may be sufficient to increase the risk of heart failure.

  A. M Johri , K Yared , R Durst , R. J Cubeddu , I. F Palacios , M. H Picard and J. Passeri

Severe paravalvular mitral regurgitation is a rare but important complication of mitral valve replacement, often producing symptoms associated with refractory heart failure or haemolysis. Explantation and replacement of the prosthesis are required in some patients but may not be possible in patients with high risk of morbidity or mortality with re-operation. We present two patients with symptomatic paravalvular mitral regurgitation who were deemed too high risk for re-operation because of multiple previous sternotomies and comorbidities. Percutaneous three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography-guided repair with septal occluder devices was undertaken in the first case of a paravalvular defect adjacent to a mitral bioprosthesis and in the second case adjacent to a mechanical mitral prosthesis. Both cases illustrate the advantage 3D echocardiography provides by allowing en-face views of the paravalvular leak and unique views of the catheter and device placement. The second case further demonstrates the novel use of full volume colour to define the extent of the regurgitant jet and provides information critical to device sizing and placement.

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