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Articles by M. Farooq
Total Records ( 9 ) for M. Farooq
  Khurshid. A. , M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , K. Sarbiland and N. Chand
  The present study was conducted on eggs of Japanese quail maintained in cages at the research unit, NWFP, Agricultural University, Peshawar, Pakistan. Five hundred eggs selected at random were broken to record data on egg weight (g), egg length (cm), egg width (cm), shell weight (g) and shell thickness (mm). Another 500 eggs were put in the incubator after discarding undesirable eggs and recording data on egg weight, egg length and egg width. Egg weight was better predictable from egg width and length. Following equations were developed to predict egg weight from egg length and width; (Equation 1) Ŷ= - 3.3133600 + 1.835144(X1) + 2.655127(X2), (Equation 2) Ŷ= 1.970096 + 2.252730(X3) and (Equation 3) Ŷ= - 1.0109318 + 3.616882(X4). Where; `Ŷ `was predicted egg weight, X1 and X3 the egg length and X2 and X4 the egg width for every equation separately. Following equations were developed for predicting eggshell weight from egg weight, length and width; (Equation 4) Ŷ=- 0.521102+0.310761(X5) +0.4074 (X6), (Equation 5) Ŷ=0.138189+0.062933(X7) +0.233078(X8) and (Equation 6) Ŷ=- 0.001150+0.071568(X9) +0.311496(X10). Where Ŷ was predicted eggshell weight, X5 and X8 were egg length, X6 and X10 are egg width and X7 and X9 were egg weight (g), respectively. Shell thickness was predictable with sufficient accuracy from egg weight, width and length and following equations were developed to predict it; (Equation 7) Ŷ= 0.154646 + 0.076448(X11) and (Equation 8) Ŷ= 0.154721 + 0.000694(X12) + 0.073939(X13). Where `Ŷ ` was predicted eggshell thickness, X11 and X13 the egg width and X12 the egg weight for each equation separately. Weight of egg albumin was predictable from the following equations; (Equation 9) Ŷ= - 0.685557 + 0.460613(X14) + 0.079842(X15) + 0.412241(X16), (Equation 10) Ŷ= - 0.553150 + 0.468198(X17) + 0.426649(X18), (Equation 11) Ŷ= 0.279557 + 0.468198(X19) and (Equation 12) Ŷ= - 2.128934 + 0.925133(X20) + 1.63522(X21). Where `Ŷ ` was the predicted weight of egg albumin, X14, X17 and X19 the egg weight, X15 and X20 the egg length in cm and X16, X18 and X21 the egg width in cm for each equation separately. Weight of egg yolk could be predicted from the following equations; (Equation 13) Ŷ= - 0.618041 + 0.339520(X22) + 0.156591(X23), (Equation 14) Ŷ= - 0.303204 + 0.355813(X24), (Equation 15) Ŷ= 0.003214 + 1.141682(X25) and (Equation 16) Ŷ= 0.050845 + 0.921437(X26). Where, Ŷ was predicted weight of egg yolk, X22 and X24 were the egg weight in grams, X23 and X25 the egg width in cm and X26 the egg length in cm for each equation separately. Weight of the newborn chick was better predictable from egg weight, width, length and egg shape index (equation 17). Ŷ = -5.558612 + 0.629504(X27) - 0.839306(X28) + 1.246874(X29) + 0.050482(X30) . Where; `Ŷ ` will be the predicted weight of the new born chick, `X27` the egg weight, `X28` the egg width, `X29` the egg length and `X30` the egg shape index. The equations developed for each trait are to be used in the order given to ensure better accuracy of the results.
  M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , N. Imran , Z. Durrani and N. Chand
  A systematic investigation was performed on the outbreaks of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) using data compiled during the years 1997 and 1998 from 50 broiler farms in Mirpur and Kotli districts. Average mortality due to IBD was 15.31±1.04% with a coefficient of variation of 48.04%. Farms located at various places and vitamin supplementation had no effect on mortality caused by IBD. Season, floor space/broiler, age of the bird, immunization schedule, interval between two batches, presence of coccidiosis in a flock and hygienic status of the farm had a significant effect (p<0.01) on prevalence of IBD. Higher losses (p<0.05) were found due to IBD in winter (19.84±2.10%) than those tabulated in spring season (9.00±2.74%). Losses were found to be higher (p<0.05) in over crowded houses (20.34±3.93%; <0.09m2/broiler) than in under (12.56±2.53%; >0.09m2/broiler) or optimally utilized housing (13.04±1.06%; 0.09m2/broiler). Significantly higher (p<0.05) losses were found in broilers at the age above 32 days (17.66±1.51%) than in broilers at 19-23 days of age (12.42±1.97%). Prevalence of IBD was higher (p<0.05) in those flocks immunized only once in their production life (23.03±1.27%) than in those produced under a standard immunization schedule (7.61±4.89%). Losses due to IBD were also higher when the duration between two batches was one week (22.28±10.28%) than at four week duration between two batches (12.80±2.78%). Insignificant differences were assessed in losses due to IBD when inter flock interval was either 2 or 3 week periods. Significantly higher (p<0.05) losses were found due to IBD in flocks experiencing coccidiosis problem (17.90±1.20%) than those having no coccidiosis problem before the onset of IBD (12.73±1.85%). Losses were less in flocks maintained under good hygienic conditions (6.03±1.33%) than those under poor hygienic conditions (21.63±2.19%). Mean economic losses due to IBD per broiler flock of 1734.50±119.91 and a flock of 1000 birds were Rs. 7846.87±1169.81/ and Rs. 4523.99±447.56/, respectively. Economic losses/year for the aforementioned flocks was Rs. 31701.38±2345.36/- and Rs. 18276.96±2388.91/-, respectively. Optimal utilization of floor space/broiler, protection of birds from extreme climatic conditions, following recommended immunization schedule, maintenance of good hygienic conditions at the farm and a flock interval of at least more than one week are suggested as important factors for reducing losses due to IBD in broilers in Mirpur and Kotli districts of Kashmir.
  Murad Ali , M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , N. Chand , K. Sarbiland and A. Riaz
  The present study was conducted on broiler breeders maintained in 24 different farms located in Mansehra and Abbotabad to investigate egg production performance and develop standard limits for production traits of economic importance. Average number of day-old chicks received at a broiler breeder farm was 19076.29, out of which 16449.08 birds attained sexual maturity and were housed in laying houses. Total hens housed represented 14037.32 females and 1559.70 males (a male to female ratio of 1:9). Reserved male stock (852.06 birds) was 5.18% of the total population. Average mortality during 323.46 days of growth and production period was 13.77%, representing 2.97, 4.99 and 5.81% mortality during brooding, growing and laying periods, respectively. Average age at point-of-lay, age at peak-of-lay and egg laying period were 164.67, 232.83 and 155.46 days. Age at point-of-lay (r = 0.227) and age at peak-of-lay (r = 0.333) were found positively but non-significantly correlated with total mortality in a flock. On the other hand flock size was found negatively correlated with age at point (r = -0.052) and age at peak-of lay (r = -0.415; p<0.04). Egg laying period was found negatively but non-significantly correlated with flock size (r = -0.147) and positively correlated with total mortality in a flock (r = 0.255). Egg laying period was found positively and significantly (P<0.027) associated with percent lay (b = 5.770). Average peak percent lay and percent lay was 83.09 and 59.67%, respectively. Percent lay was found non-significantly and positively correlated with flock size (r=0.184) and mortality ( = 0.085). Similar findings were observed for peak percent lay. Percent lay was found positively and significantly (P<0.033) associated with peak percent lay (b = 0.625). Peak percent lay was found negatively associated with age at peak of lay (b = -0.324; P<0.001) and positively associated with age at point of lay (b = 0.891; P<0.001). Average hen-day and hen-housed egg production was 103.32 and 95.10 eggs, respectively. Hen-day (r = -0.067) and hen-housed egg production (r = -0.074) was found negatively and non-significantly correlated with flock size. Hen-day egg production was found positively associated with peak percent lay (b = 1.600; P<0.035) and egg laying period (b = 0.627; P<0.001). Percent lay, peak percent lay, egg laying period and hen-day and hen-housed egg production was lower than that reported in the literature. Standard limits for minimum number of hens to be housed, maximum level of mortality, maximum age at point of lay, maximum age at peak of lay, minimum peak percent lay, minimum percent lay, egg laying period in response to percent lay and egg laying period in response to hen-day production were 4172.21 birds, 13.11%, 164.36 days, 35.33 weeks, 79.99%, 67.64%, 28.06 weeks and 65.54 weeks, respectively. The standard limits mentioned for various traits shall be maintained in order to make broiler farming more productive.
  Jamal, S. , M. Syed , M. Farooq , Nazir Ahmad and S. K. Hamid
  division were collected to investigate land holding, herd status, cost of production, gross income and net profit per buffalo. A higher proportion (69%) of the farms was owned by landless farmers than big landholder (9.23%) indicating majority of the landless farms in peri-urban areas (83.3%) than in rural areas (56.9%). Average herd size was 39.66?9.87 buffaloes, representing significantly larger herd size in peri-urban (56.33?36.43 buffaloes0 as compared to rural areas (28.33?3.92 buffaloes). Big landholders were maintaining a larger herd size (66?24.78 buffaloes) than medium size landholders (25?2.82 buffaloes). Average fixed cost per farm was Rs. 1433433.2?722.436, represeenting higher cost per buffalo for dairy farms located in peri-urban farms (Rs. 80.80?7.96). Cobb-Douglas production function explained the relationship between two majo sources of variable cost (labour and feed) and income per animal per day. Constant Elasticity Subsstitution (CES) production function did not converge when fitted to economic data of the 130 farms. Significantly higher (P<0.05) variable cost per buffalo/day was found for landless farmers (Rs. 100.95?2.96) as compared to bigh landholders (Rs. 61.71?5.33). Average feed cost per buffalo per day was Rs. 66.83?2.14, representing Rs. 12.31?0.33 as feed cost/kg milk produced. Feed cost contributed 76.64?0.81% to total variable cost of production. Feed cost per animal/day (Rs. 75.33?4.70) and per kg milk produced (Rs. 10.31?0.69) was significantly higher (P<0.05%) in urban than in peri-urban dairy farms (Rs. 62.83?3.41 and Rs. 8.53?0.41, respectively). Average labor wages per buffalo/day in commercial dairy farms were Rs. 11.24?0.57, representing Rs. 1.65?0.08 as labor wages per kg milk. Labor wages were the second majo components of variable cost of production contributing 13.35?0.81% to total variable cost of production. Average miscellaneous, medicinal and utility cost per buffalo/day in commercial dairy farms were Rs. 6.82?0.43, Rs. 0.90?0.08 and Rs. 0.48?0.02, respectively, Net income per buffalo/day was Rs. 58.83?8.25 and found negatively correlated (r=-0.44; P<0.001) with total cost of production. Significantly higher (P<0.05) net profit per buffalo/day was obtained in peri-urban farms (Rs. 69.53?10.96) than at dairy farms in rural areas (Rs. 47.44?13.83). Net profit per buffalo per day was Net profit buffalo per day was significantly higher (P<0.05) for medium lanholders (Rs. 62.32?8.67) than that for landless dairy farmers (Rs. 52.38?3.87). Reduction in feed cost through farm grown fodder and maintenance of large herds of higher yielding buffaloes were suggested as key factors for maximum net profit.
  H. Munib , K. Inamullah , M. Siddiqui , M. Farooq and Nazir Ahmad
  A project was planned to investigate prevalence of cestode and study relative efficacy of five different anthelmintics used for the control of cestodes in Rambouillet sheep under local conditions of Livestock Research Station (LRS), Jaba, district Mansehra, Pakistan. Out of the total animals examined, 28% were found infested with cestodes, carrying 545.35?48.12 eggs per gram (EPG) of fecal sample on the average with a coefficient of variation of 88.97%. Fecal examination for various species of cestodes revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher EPG of Moniezia expensa (388.85?23.55EPG) as compared to Avitellina centripunctata (144.64?48.22) and Moniezia benedeni (11.86?2.78). No EPG was found in fecal sample of group of sheep treated with Nilzan plus before and after treatment, whereas Vety Vermicide was not effective to control cestodes. Treatment efficacy of Albex, systamex and Vety Wormex was 100%. Sheep drenched with Vety Wormex and Systamex should receive periodic deworming after 15th week, while Albex treated group after 14 weeks post-treatment. To be more accurate, regular examination of the fecal samples at weekly intervals would be the better option for deciding dewormers` use at LRS, Jaba. Use of Vety Vermicide should be discouraged for the control of cestode
  1Tahir B. , F.R. Durrani , M. Farooq , Z. Durrani , Sar Zamin , M.A. Khan and Riaz. A.
  Morbid materials from 25 commercial broiler breeder farms located in Abbottabad and Mansehra districts were collected over one year period to investigate prevalence of Fowl cholera and study efficiency of various organs to be used as diagnostic tools for fowl cholera. Overall incidence of Fowl cholera was (0.80?0.26%) with a coefficient of variation of 231.45%, indicating significantly higher incidence (1.07?0.62%) in Mansehra than in Abbottabad (0.53?0.34%). Significantly (p<0.05) lower incidence of Fowl cholera was found in vaccinated (0.15?0.26%) than in non-vaccinated flocks (1.45?0.63%). Higher incidence (1.35?0.38%) of Fowl cholera was found in farms previously exposed to Fowl cholera disease as compared to those in which there was no previous incidence (0.25?0.29%). Fowl cholera was found positively (p<0.01) and significantly associated with flock age (b=0.074661?0.03389) but negatively associated with egg production (b=-16.24429?0.928103). Liver was found to be the best organ for diagnosis of Fowl cholera in broiler breeder flocks.
  Nazir Ahmad , M. Syed , M. Farooq , S.I. Shah and R. A. Gill
  Information on production and reproduction traits from 1982 through 1992 of imported anf farm-born Holstein cattle maintained at Government Cattle Breeding and Dairy Farm, Harichand, Charsadda were collected to investigate lactation length, dry period and persistency of lactation and some of the factors affecting these traits. Overall mean lactation length, dry period and persistency of lactation was 315.46?3.62 days (coefficent of variation, 29.88%), 134.47?5.65 (coefficient of variation of 93.38%) and 90.5?0.01%, respectively. The lower and upper limits of 95% confidence interval for lactation length, dry period and persistency of lactation were 308.3, and 315.46 days, 123.30 days, and 45.65 days and 89.75%, and 90.82%, respectively. Imported cows had longer length of lactation and shorter dry period than in farm-born cows while persistency of lactation was same. Year and season of calving had a significant (P<0.01) effect on lactation length, dry period and persistency of lactation. Lactation length was found significantly (p<0.01) correlated with age at first calving (r=-0.20), milk yield per day of age at second calving (r=0.26) and lactation yield (r=0.69). Dry period had a significant (p<0.01) correlation with age at second calving (r=0.43), calving interval (r=-0.78) and lactation yield (r=-0.13). Persistency of lactation had a significantly (P<0.01) negative correlation with puberty age (r=-0.23). Efforts should be made to achieve optimal lactation lengths, shorter dry periods and appropriate calving interval by improving reproductive efficiency of the herd. Protection of animals from extreem of hot climates, availability of green fodder and possibilities of voluntry culling should be sorted out to aviod further deterioration in genetic potentials of the progeny.
  M. Farooq , A.K. Mansab , Hidayatullah and K.M. Khokhar
  Seven exotic chilli (Capsicum frutescens) cultivars, NARC-4, 9656-06, 9656-15, PBC-386, PBC-534, PBC-581 and Korean were evaluated for different yield parameters including number of fruits per plant, fruit weight per plant, single fruit weight, fruit size and yield per hectare. A potential line PBC-386 was found the highest yielding with 14.5 t ha-1 of fresh fruit. It was followed by PBC-534 and 9656-15 yielding 11.9 and 10.1 t ha-1, respectively while Korean seemed to be the poorest yielder with only 4.2 t ha-1 of fresh fruit.
  C. Naila , M. Farooq , F. R. Durrani , A. Asghar and Pervez
  Twenty female farmers in each of 20 different villages of district charsadda, NWFP were selected at random to investigate prevalence and economic ramification of Newcastle disease in Backyard chicken. Overall Morbidity and mortality was 31.0±1.84 and 26.98±1.14%, respectively causing 86.95±0.79% mortality among the sick birds. Morbidity (56.93±7.61) and mortality (98.66±7.03%) among the sick birds was higher (p<0.05) in White Leghorn (WLH) than in Fayumi (17.94±2.22 and 74.28±1.91), Rhode Island Red (RIR; 27.79±3.73 and 90.67±3.71) and Local chicken (20.82±1.34 and 84.24±0.89%, respectively). Overall mortality was also higher in WLH (49.23±6.92%) than in Fayumi (14.36±1.89%), RIR (24.10±3.36%) and Local (20.18±1.18%) morbidity (49.19±1.56%), mortality among the sick birds (99.89±0.93%) and overall mortality (44.88±1.45%) was higher (p<0.05) in those flock which were not vaccinated flocks than in flocks regularly vaccinated (12.84±1.01, 65.96±2.02% and 8.92±0.84%, respectively). Morbidity (46.82±2.35%) and mortality among the sick birds (98.58±0.27%) was higher (p<0.05) in chicks than in adult birds (17.63±1.23 and 76.06±1.80%) and pullets (28.92±2.49 and 85.79±0.87%, respectively). Overall mortality was also higher in chicks (40.71±1.52) than in adult birds (15.76±0.91%) and Pullets (24.39±1.07%). Higher morbidity and mortality (among the sick birds) was observed in winter season (72.08±0.84 and 98.82±0.82) than in Summer (29.45±0.78 and 90.93±0.89), Fall (14.63±0.68 and 82.78±1.03) and Spring season (8.28±0.72% and 74.08±1.2%, respectively). Overall mortality was also high in winter (68.7±0.79%) than in Summer (22.34±0.7%), Fall (11.26±0.8%) and Spring (5.65±0.93%). Although, not significant, morbidity and mortality (among the sick birds) was numerically high (32.16±2.01 and 96.43±2.68%) in chicken having no shelter facility than in those which had a night shelter facilities (30.03±1.95 and 77.51±1.79%, respectively). Per cent morbidity had a non-significant association (b=-0.6341±0.085) with per cent reduction in egg production. Per cent morbidity was found significantly (p<0.05) and negatively associated with per cent reduction in eggs of RIR (b=-0.2254±0.572) and local chicken (b=-0.14862±0.047). Per household annual reduction in eggs and economic ramification due to reduced egg production, and mortality were 401.06±1.14 eggs and Rs. 902.45±0.56, and Rs. 1343.84±2.8, respectively. Total per household per year economic ramification due to reduction in eggs and mortality resulting from Newcastle disease was Rs. 2246.29±1.19. Per household per cent reduction in egg production and economic ramification due to reduced egg production of Newcastle affected chicken was higher (p<0.05) in WLH (154.41±1.14 number and Rs. 347.42±5.34) than in RIR (114.89 number and Rs. 258.5±2.15), local (76.04±1.14 and Rs. 171.09±2.26) and Fayumi (55.75±0.45 and Rs. 125.44±3.88, respectively). Economic ramification as a result of mortality was also higher (p<0.05) in WLH (Rs. 457.32±5.91) than in RIR (Rs. 378.39±2.89), local (Rs. 311.62±2.13) and Fayumi (Rs. 196.72±4.33). Economic ramification due to mortality as a result of Newcastle disease was higher (p<0.05) in chick (Rs. 1522.49±1.14) than in pullets (Rs. 1325.21±1.01) and adult birds (Rs. 1183.25±1.26). Protection of chicken from extremes of weathers, provision of shelter and timely vaccination were recommended to avoid losses. In addition, rearing RIR, and Fayumi as backyard chicken along with local chicken (non-descript) would also be helpful in avoiding economic ramification in Charsadda.
 
 
 
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