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Articles by M. F Romero
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. F Romero
  C. R Sussman , J Zhao , C Plata , J Lu , C Daly , N Angle , J DiPiero , I. A Drummond , J. O Liang , W. F Boron , M. F Romero and M. H. Chang

Mutations in the electrogenic Na+/nHCO3 cotransporter (NBCe1, SLC4A4) cause severe proximal renal tubular acidosis, glaucoma, and cataracts in humans, indicating NBCe1 has a critical role in acid-base homeostasis and ocular fluid transport. To better understand the homeostatic roles and protein ontogeny of NBCe1, we have cloned, localized, and downregulated NBCe1 expression in zebrafish, and examined its transport characteristics when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Zebrafish NBCe1 (zNBCe1) is 80% identical to published mammalian NBCe1 cDNAs. Like other fish NBCe1 clones, zebrafish NBCe1 is most similar to the pancreatic form of mammalian NBC (Slc4a4-B) but appears to be the dominant isoform found in zebrafish. In situ hybridization of embryos demonstrated mRNA expression in kidney pronephros and eye by 24 h postfertilization (hpf) and gill and brain by 120 hpf. Immunohistochemical labeling demonstrated expression in adult zebrafish eye and gill. Morpholino knockdown studies demonstrated roles in eye and brain development and caused edema, indicating altered fluid and electrolyte balance. With the use of microelectrodes to measure membrane potential (Vm), voltage clamp (VC), intracellular pH (pHi), or intracellular Na+ activity (aNai), we examined the function of zNBCe1 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Zebrafish NBCe1 shared transport properties with mammalian NBCe1s, demonstrating electrogenic Na+ and HCO3 transport as well as similar drug sensitivity, including inhibition by 4,4'-diiso-thiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene and tenidap. These data indicate that NBCe1 in zebrafish shares many characteristics with mammalian NBCe1, including tissue distribution, importance in systemic water and electrolyte balance, and electrogenic transport of Na+ and HCO3. Thus zebrafish promise to be useful model system for studies of NBCe1 physiology.

  K Mahadeo , N Diop Bove , D Shin , E. S Unal , J Teo , R Zhao , M. H Chang , A Fulterer , M. F Romero and I. D. Goldman

The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT-SLC46A1) is required for intestinal folate absorption and is mutated in the autosomal recessive disorder, hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM). This report characterizes properties and requirements of the R376 residue in PCFT function, including a R376Q mutant associated with HFM. Gln, Cys, and Ala substitutions resulted in markedly impaired transport of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FTHF) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) due to an increase in Km and decrease in Vmax in HeLa R1–11 transfectants lacking endogenous folate transport function. In contrast, although the influx Km for pemetrexed was increased, transport was fully preserved at saturating concentrations and enhanced for the like-charged R376K- and R376H-PCFT. Pemetrexed and 5-FTHF influx mediated by R376Q-PCFT was markedly decreased at pH 5.5 compared with wild-type PCFT. However, while pemetrexed transport was substantially preserved at low pH (4.5–5.0), 5-FTHF transport remained very low. Electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that 1) the R376Q mutant, like wild-type PCFT, transports protons in the absence of folate substrate, and in this respect has channel-like properties; and 2) the influx Km mediated by R376Q-PCFT is increased for 5-MTHF, 5-FTHF, and pemetrexed. The data suggest that mutation of the R376 residue to Gln impairs proton binding which, in turn, modulates the folate-binding pocket and depresses the rate of conformational alteration of the carrier, a change that appears to be, in part, substrate dependent.

  E. S Unal , R Zhao , M. H Chang , A Fiser , M. F Romero and I. D. Goldman

This report addresses the functional role of His residues in the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT; SLC46A1), which mediates intestinal folate absorption. Of ten His residues, only H247A and H281A mutations altered function. The folic acid influx Kt at pH 5.5 for H247A was 8.4-fold. Although wild type (WT)-PCFT Ki values varied among the folates, Ki values were much lower and comparable for H247-A, -R, -Q, or -E mutants. Homology modeling localized His247 to the large loop separating transmembrane domains 6 and 7 at the cytoplasmic entrance of the translocation pathway in hydrogen-bond distance to Ser172. The folic acid influx Kt for S172A-PCFT was decreased similar to H247A. His281 faces the extracellular region in the seventh transmembrane domain. H281A-PCFT results in loss-of-function due to ~12-fold in the folic acid influx Kt. When the pH was decreased from 5.5 to 4.5, the WT-PCFT folic acid influx Kt was unchanged, but the Kt decreased 4-fold for H281A. In electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes, both WT-PCFT- and H281A-PCFT-mediated folic acid uptake produced current and acidification, and both exhibited a low level of folate-independent proton transport (slippage). Slippage was markedly increased for the H247A-PCFT mutant. The data suggest that disruption of the His247 to Ser172 interaction results in a PCFT conformational alteration causing a loss of selectivity, increased substrate access to a high affinity binding pocket, and proton transport in the absence of a folate gradient. The His281 residue is not essential for proton coupling but plays an important role in PCFT protonation, which, in turn, augments folate binding to the carrier.

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