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Articles by M. D Schmidt
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. D Schmidt
  M. L Callisaya , L Blizzard , M. D Schmidt , J. L McGinley , S. R Lord and V. K. Srikanth

Background: the study of factors associated with age-related gait decline may assist in developing methods to preserve mobility in older people.

Objective: to examine the associations between sensorimotor factors relevant to ageing and gait in the general older population.

Design: cross-sectional population-based study.

Methods: participants aged 60–86 years (n = 278) were randomly selected using electoral roll sampling. Sensorimotor factors (quadriceps strength, reaction time, postural sway, proprioception and visual contrast sensitivity) were measured using the Physiological Profile Assessment. Gait variables (speed, cadence, step length, double support phase and step width) were recorded with a GAITRite walkway. Linear regression was used to model relationships between sensorimotor and gait variables.

Results: mean age of participants was 72.4 (7.0) years with 154 (55%) males. Better quadriceps strength, reaction time and postural sway (in men) predicted faster gait speed due to their effects on step length and/or cadence. Body weight (in men) and visual contrast sensitivity (in women) were modifying factors in these relationships. Better postural sway, reaction time (in men) and quadriceps strength (in women) predicted reduced double support phase. Modifying factors were quadriceps strength (in men) and proprioception (in women). Postural sway was the sole predictor of step width and in women only.

Conclusion: potentially modifiable sensorimotor factors were associated with a range of gait measures, with a different pattern of individual associations and interactions seen between the sexes. These results provide further mechanistic insights towards explaining age-related gait decline in the general older population.

  M. L Callisaya , L Blizzard , M. D Schmidt , J. L McGinley and V. K. Srikanth

Background: gait variability may be an important predictor of falls risk, but its characteristics are poorly understood.

Objective: to examine the relationship between age and gait variability in a population-based sample of older people.

Design: cross-sectional study.

Methods: in people aged 60–86 years (n = 412), temporal and spatial gait variability measures were recorded with a GAITRite walkway. Regression analysis was used to model the relationship between age and gait variability adjusting for height, weight and self-reported chronic disease. Further adjustment was made for gait speed to examine its influence on the associations.

Results: older age was associated with greater variability (P < 0.05) in all gait measures. All relationships were linear, except that between age and step time variability, which was curvilinear in women. Adjusting for gait speed changed the magnitude of the age coefficient by 62–86% for temporal variability measures, 25% for step length variability and 5–12% for step width variability.

Conclusion: age is linearly associated with greater intra-individual gait variability for most gait measures, except for step time variability in women. Gait speed may mediate the association between age and temporal variability measures. Further study is needed to understand the factors responsible for the greater gait variability with ageing.

  C. G Magnussen , J Koskinen , W Chen , R Thomson , M. D Schmidt , S. R Srinivasan , M Kivimaki , N Mattsson , M Kahonen , T Laitinen , L Taittonen , T Ronnemaa , J. S. A Viikari , G. S Berenson , M Juonala and O. T. Raitakari

The clinical utility of identifying pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) is controversial. This study sought to determine the status of pediatric MetS as a risk factor for adult subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness [cIMT]) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare and contrast this prediction with its individual components.

Methods and Results—

Using data from the population-based, prospective, observational Bogalusa Heart and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns studies, we examined the utility of 4 categorical definitions of youth MetS and their components in predicting adult high cIMT and T2DM among 1781 participants aged 9 to 18 years at baseline (1984 to 1988) who were then examined 14 to 27 years later (2001–2007) when aged 24 to 41 years. Youth with MetS were at 2 to 3 times the risk of having high cIMT and T2DM as adults compared with those free of MetS at youth. Risk estimates with the use of high body mass index were similar to those of MetS phenotypes in predicting adult outcomes. Comparisons of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and net reclassification index suggested that prediction of adult MetS, high cIMT, and T2DM in adulthood with the use of youth MetS was either equivalent or inferior to classification based on high body mass index or overweight and obesity.


Youth with MetS are at increased risk of meaningful adult outcomes; however, the simplicity of screening for high BMI or overweight and obesity in the pediatric setting offers a simpler, equally accurate alternative to identifying youth at risk of developing adult MetS, high cIMT, or T2DM.

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