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Articles by M. C Rosal
Total Records ( 4 ) for M. C Rosal
  J. W Smoller , M Allison , B. B Cochrane , J. D Curb , R. H Perlis , J. G Robinson , M. C Rosal , N. K Wenger and S. Wassertheil Smoller

Background  Antidepressants are commonly prescribed medications, but their effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains unclear.

Methods  Prospective cohort study of 136 293 community-dwelling postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Women taking no antidepressants at study entry and who had at least 1 follow-up visit were included. Cardiovascular morbidity and all-cause mortality for women with new antidepressant use at follow-up (n = 5496) were compared with those characteristics for women taking no antidepressants at follow-up (mean follow-up, 5.9 years).

Results  Antidepressant use was not associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use was associated with increased stroke risk (hazard ratio [HR],1.45, [95% CI, 1.08-1.97]) and all-cause mortality (HR,1.32 [95% CI, 1.10-1.59]). Annualized rates per 1000 person-years of stroke with no antidepressant use and SSRI use were 2.99 and 4.16, respectively, and death rates were 7.79 and 12.77. Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) use was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR,1.67 [95% CI, 1.33-2.09]; annualized rate, 14.14 deaths per 1000 person-years). There were no significant differences between SSRI and TCA use in risk of any outcomes. In analyses by stroke type, SSRI use was associated with incident hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.10-4.07]) and fatal stroke (HR, 2.10 [95% CI, 1.15-3.81]).

Conclusions  In postmenopausal women, there were no significant differences between SSRI and TCA use in risk of CHD, stroke, or mortality. Antidepressants were not associated with risk of CHD. Tricyclic antidepressants and SSRIs may be associated with increased risk of mortality, and SSRIs with increased risk of hemorrhagic and fatal stroke, although absolute event risks are low. These findings must be weighed against quality of life and established risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with untreated depression.

  H. A Tindle , Y. F Chang , L. H Kuller , J. E Manson , J. G Robinson , M. C Rosal , G. J Siegle and K. A. Matthews

Background— Trait optimism (positive future expectations) and cynical, hostile attitudes toward others have not been studied together in relation to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality in postmenopausal women.

Methods and Results— Participants were 97 253 women (89 259 white, 7994 black) from the Women’s Health Initiative who were free of cancer and cardiovascular disease at study entry. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test–Revised and cynical hostility by the cynicism subscale of the Cook Medley Questionnaire. Cox proportional hazard models produced adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs) for incident CHD (myocardial infarction, angina, percutaneous coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass surgery) and total mortality (CHD, cardiovascular disease, or cancer related) over 8 years. Optimists (top versus bottom quartile ["pessimists"]) had lower age-adjusted rates (per 10 000) of CHD (43 versus 60) and total mortality (46 versus 63). The most cynical, hostile women (top versus bottom quartile) had higher rates of CHD (56 versus 44) and total mortality (63 versus 46). Optimists (versus pessimists) had a lower hazard of CHD (AHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.99), CHD-related mortality (AHR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.90), cancer-related mortality (blacks only; AHR 0.56, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.88), and total mortality (AHR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.93). Most (versus least) cynical, hostile women had a higher hazard of cancer-related mortality (AHR 1.23, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.40) and total mortality (AHR 1.16, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.27; this effect was pronounced in blacks). Effects of optimism and cynical hostility were independent.

Conclusions— Optimism and cynical hostility are independently associated with important health outcomes in black and white women. Future research should examine whether interventions designed to change attitudes would lead to altered risk.

  J Hsia , R. J Rodabough , J. E Manson , S Liu , M. S Freiberg , W Graettinger , M. C Rosal , B Cochrane , D Lloyd Jones , J. G Robinson , B. V Howard and for the Women's Health Initiative Research Group

Background— The 2007 update to the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiovascular disease prevention in women recommend a simplified approach to risk stratification. We assigned Women’s Health Initiative participants to risk categories as described in the guideline and evaluated clinical event rates within and between strata.

Methods and Results— The Women’s Health Initiative enrolled 161 808 women ages 50 to 79 years and followed them prospectively for 7.8 years (mean). Applying the 2007 AHA guideline categories, 11% of women were high risk, 72% at-risk, and 4% at optimal risk; 13% of women did not fall into any category, that is, lacked risk factors but did not adhere to a healthy lifestyle (moderate intensity exercise for 30 minute most days and <7% of calories from saturated fat). Among high risk, at-risk, and optimal risk women, rates of myocardial infarction/coronary death were 12.5%, 3.1%, and 1.1% per 10 years (P for trend <0.0001); the event rate was 1.3% among women who could not be categorized. We observed a graded relationship between risk category and cardiovascular event rates for white, black, Hispanic, and Asian women, although event rates differed among ethnic groups (P for interaction=0.002). The AHA guideline predicted coronary events with accuracy similar to current Framingham risk categories (area under receiver operating characteristic curve for Framingham risk, 0.665; for AHA risk, 0.664; P=0.94) but less well than proposed Framingham 10-year risk categories of <5%, 5% to 20%, and >20% (area under receiver operating characteristic curve for Framingham risk, 0.724; for AHA risk, 0.664; P<0.0001).

Conclusions— Risk stratification as proposed in the 2007 AHA guideline is simple, accessible to patients and providers, and identifies cardiovascular risk with accuracy similar to that of the current Framingham algorithm.

Clinical Trial Registration— Identifier: NCT00000611.

  M. C Rosal , M. J White , A Borg , J Scavron , L Candib , I Ockene and R. Magner


To describe methods used to recruit and retain low-income Latinos in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of a diabetes self-management intervention at 5 community health centers (CHCs) in Massachusetts.


Consent from primary care providers (PCPs) was obtained to screen their patients. Trained site research coordinators (SRCs) screened, recruited, and enrolled participants following a multistep process (medical record reviews, PCP approval, a patient eligibility interview) and provided support for retention efforts. Assessment staff were trained in motivational strategies to facilitate retention and received ongoing support from a retention coordinator. Electronic tracking systems facilitated recruitment and retention activities.


Of an initial pool of 1176 patients, 1034 were active at the time of screening, 592 (57%) were eligible by medical record review, and 487 received PCP approval (92% of reviewed patients). Of these, 293 patients completed the patient screening interview (60% of patients with PCP approval, and 76% of those reached), and 276 were eligible. Sixteen percent of all active patients refused participation, and 8% of contacted patients were unreachable. Two hundred fifty-two patients were randomized after completion of baseline assessments. Clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial assessment completion rates were 92%, 77%, and 86% at 12-month follow-up, respectively, and 93% of patients completed at least one study assessment at 12 months.


CHCs are a prime setting for translation research aimed to eliminate diabetes health disparities. Successful recruitment and retention efforts must address institutional/organizational, research team, and patient-related challenges.

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