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Articles by M. Bernardo-Filho
Total Records ( 14 ) for M. Bernardo-Filho
  G.F. Dire , J.C.S. Oliveira , S.D.D. Vasconcelos , P.R.A. Siqueira , R.M. Duarte , M.C.L. Almeida , J.S. Rodrigues , M.L. Fernandes and M. Bernardo-Filho
  The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an extract of Sechium edule on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. A freshly extract of Sechium edule was administered to Wistar rats during 7 days. After that, samples (0.5 mL) of blood were incubated with stannous chloride (SnCl2) and 99mTc. The blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and RBC were isolated. P and RBC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (S) and insoluble (I) fraction (F) were determined. The radioactivity (ATI%) was rated in RBC, IF-P and IF-C in a well counter. Due to the analysis of the results it was observed a decrease in the uptake of %ATI by the blood cells in the diabetic group treated with chayotte (89.96±5.16) in comparison to the diabetic group (97.16±1.26). Related to the %ATI binding in the IF-P it was noticed a decrease in the efficiency of radiolabeling in the diabetic group (from 80.22±5.50 to 71.16±1.97) and in the diabetic group treated with the extract (from 80.22±5.50 to 70.87±4.10). Due to the %ATI binding to the IF-C it was observed a decrease in the group treated with chayotte extract (from 91.08±4.10 to 67.26±2.20), in the diabetic group (from 91.08±4.10 to 71.26±2.46) and in the diabetic group treated with chayotte (from 91.08±4.10 to 71.51±3.38). In the light of the results the referred extract has an oxidant action. We suggest that the referred extract may induce the generation of activity metabolites with direct action on the labeling process probably acting in the cell membrane and in the binding sites protein together with an oxidative stress present in diabetes.
  L. M. Lopes De Britto , C. M. C. Xavier Holanda , R. L. Cavalcanti Jales , M. H. Marques Fonseca , L. H. Jales-Junior , K. C. Brand?o , L. F.Amorim and M. Bernardo-Filho
  There is evidence that the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics of 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals can be modified by some drugs, pathological stats, irradiation and surgical procedures. Tamoxifen have been widely used in various protocols of hormone therapy in the overall treatment of breast cancer. We have studied the effect of Tamoxifen on the biodistribution of technetium – 99m – methyl enediphosphonic acid (99m Tc-MDP), in female wistar rats (07 months old). We administered a single oral dose with 0.12 mg of Tamoxifen during 07 days. The animals (n=12) were divided in two groups: treated (n=6) and control (n=6) and they were sacrificed, respectively, in 2 periods (60 and 180 min), after administration of 99m Tc-MDP. The organs were isolated (lung, ovary, kidney, bladder, stomach, pancreas, spleen, heart, brain, bone, duodenum, thyroid, uterus, liver, muscle and blood) and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in each organ were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test (P 0.05). The % ATI was significantly decreased in the uterus, ovaries, spleen, pancreas, heart, lungies, bone, muscle and brain of the animals, treated with tamoxifen (P 0.05) in both groups of 60 and 180 min. The treated group has show a significant increase of the ATI% in liver, kidney, bladder, stomach, thyroid and blood in 60 e 180 min.
  G. Dir? , E. Lima , M. L. Gomes , M. Castro Faria , R. L. Jales and M. Bernardo-Filho
  The use of natural products as medicines has been growing in the entire world. There are concerns that these products may contain potentially toxic ingredients and contaminants such as heavy metals. The labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m has been influenced by the presence of natural extracts. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extract (100%vv macerated) on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. The animals were treated with the extract during 15 days. Samples of blood were incubated with stannous chloride and with 99mTc. Plasma and blood cells were isolated and also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble and insoluble fractions obtained. Samples were carried out with specific blood biochemistry kits. We analyzed the influence of chayotte in the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species induced by stannous chloride. There was a decrease in the radioactivity in the insoluble fractions of plasma and a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E.coli culture in the presence of chayotte. The results indicated a decrease in the level of glucose and globulin The effect of the extract could be explained by its metabolic transformation inducing the generation of oxidant metabolites. The culture of bacteria when was treated with stannous chloride and chayotte simultaneously, the extract could be reacting with stannous chloride ions, protecting them against the oxidation avoiding the generation of reactive oxygen species.
  M.L. Gomes , E.A.C. Lima , R.L. Jales , M. Castro Faria , M. Bernardo-Filho and G. Dire
  The use of natural products occurs around the world. The labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99m Tc) has been influenced by natural extracts. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte(Sechium edule) extract on the labeling of blood elements with 99m Tc, in the structural conformation of DNA, in the biochemistry of blood and in the measurement of. blood pressure. The animals were treated with chayotte during 15 days and samples of blood were withdrawn. The samples were incubated with stannous chloride and with 99mTc. Plasma(P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble(SF) and insoluble fractions(IF) separated. There was a decrease in the radioactivity in IF-P(from 83.96 ± 4.28 to 53.26 ± 6.69). Samples of blood from the treated group were carried out with specific biochemistry kits and the blood biochemistry analysis compounds was done. It was analyzed the level of uric acid, albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL), globulin and trigliceridics. The gauging of the blood pressure of the animals was taken. Our results showed a reduction on the level of glucose (from 118.40 ± 10.69 to 97.20 ± 4.32) and globulin (3.52 ± 0.13 to 3.08 ± 0.19) as well as in the diastolic pressure (from 123.80 ± 9.12 to 84.40 ± 3.85). It was observed that the referred extract has induced lesions on the DNA molecule. The effect of chayotte extract probably, could be explained by the metabolization of the chayotte that could be capable to induce the generation of active metabolites with oxidant properties.
  E. A. C. Lima , M. L. Gomes , S. Moreno , M. T. Q. Marques , R. L. Jales and M. Bernardo-Filho
  The evidence that natural and synthetic drugs can affect radiolabeling or biodistribution of red cells in setting of nuclear medicine clinic has come to light only recently. A therapeutic drug can modify the nature/amount of technetium-99m (99mTc) radiopharmaceutical bound to blood elements and this may result in a unexpected behavior of the radiopharmaceutical. Once chayotte is used as food and also in folk medicine, we decided to evaluated the influence of this natural product on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc and in the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 trough gel electrophoresis analysis. Blood withdrawn from Wistar rats was incubated with the extract, (100% v/v).The blood samples were incubated with stannous chloride and with 99mTc. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. A sample of blood was treated with ficoll-hypac, centrifuged and white cells were isolated. A solution of lymphocytes (2.5 mL) was obtained. After that, 0.2mL of a solution of lymphocytes was incubated with 0.1 mL of the vegetable extracts. A solution of stannous chloride and 99mTc were added. Lymphocytes and aqueous solution were separated. The %ATI bound to blood components was evaluated. The analysis of the results showed that there is not a decrease in %ATI in the blood constituents with chayotte extract. Although chayotte extract is not capable to alter the radiolabeling of. blood proteins and cells with 99mTc it was observed that the referred extract is capable to induce lesions in the plasmid DNA showing their possible oxidant properties. The studied natural product was not capable to oxide the stannous ions sufficiently to reduce the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc.
  E. Lima , M. Gomes and M. Bernardo-Filho
  Traditional Chinese Medicine is largely based on experience and is guided by a holistic concept. Theories such as the "yin-yang" theory and "five-elements" theory embrace the view that treatment is targeted at correcting an underlying imbalance. Ying-yang literally means "opposites" and refers to opposing influences such as positive and negative forces. The five-element theory is named "Wu Shing" in Chinese and expounds that everything is maintained in kinetic balance under the movement of five elements. Prescription of herbs based on these theories may comprise a single herb or more commonly a mixture of herbs in differing amounts. The constituents of herbal products can cause adverse effects. Although natural products are widely used as food or as medicines for humans they can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) as wells as the shape of red blood cells. 99mTc is one of most used radionuclide in nuclear medicine and in basic research. It was related by some authors that natural and synthetic drugs may alter the process of radiolabeling. Sechium edule (chayotte) is a vegetable very spent in the human nutrition as the popular medicine due its properties such as the diuretic and the hypotensor effects. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extracts (decoct and macerated) on the morphology of red blood cells and on the radiolabeling of blood elements. In our study, blood was withdraw from Wistar rats which were treated with chayotte extracts (0.1g/mL) during 15 days. After that, blood was incubated with stannous chloride (SnCl2) for 1 hour. Elapsed this time 99mTc as Sodium pertechnetate (NaTcO4) was added and the incubation continued for more 10 minutes. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA 5%) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. For the morphology analysis, samples of the blood were collected and smears were prepared. The blood smears were dried, fixed and stained. The analysis was done by video optical microscope using image pro-plus program. In our results it was observed that the referred extracts were capable to alter the radiolabeing of blood elements together with the morphology of red blood cells. Similar results were noticed in a in vivo study with a Mentha crispa L. estract (mint). The effect of the chayotte extracts probably, could be explained by the generation of activity metabolites with oxidant properties which might be altering the stabilizing of the red blood cell membrane as the radiolabeling of blood elements.
  L. Lima-Filho , S.R.F. Moreno , R.S. Freitas , S.D. Santos-Filho , M.V. Castro-Faria , G.M.T. Lima , L.C.M. Aleixo and M. Bernardo-Filho
  Phytic acid is a wide-ranging regulator of many important cellular functions such as intracellular regulations of surface receptions channels and it is known to have antioxidant and chelating properties. Stannous fluoride (SnF2) is widely used by the human beings. It has been known for many years that fluoride is an inhibitor of enzymes. In order to analyze whether the sensitive, simple and low cost potentiometric method is capable to inhibit the jack bean urease activity, finally, we evaluated this system specifically to verify the jack bean urease inhibition by phytic acid and stannous fluoride. Inhibition curves showed that stannous fluoride (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM) promoted a 20.34 ? 0.62, 53.13 ? 2.77 and 72.86 ? 4.32 % inhibition of the enzyme, respectively. Phytic acid (10 and 20 mM) did not alter significantly (p<0.05) the enzyme from the inhibition induced by the SnF2. Although, the formation of metal-complexes is a property of phytic acid, our results suggest that the chelating properties of phytic acid, probably, could be responsible by the observed effects. Furthermore, this method can be worthwhile to evaluate the action of some other chemical agents used by the human beings.
  G.F. Dire , P.R.A. Siqueira , R.M. Duarte , M.C.L. Almeida , J.S. Rodrigues , J.C.S. Oliveira , S.D.D. Vasconcelos , M.L. Fernandes and M. Bernardo-Filho
  We evaluated the influence of a chayotte(Sechium edule) extract (macerated) and diabetes status on the bioavailability of 99mTcO4Na. In this study, in the biodistribution analysis, the 99mTcO4Na (0.3 mL) was administrated into female Wistar rats (diabetes and no diabetes induced) which had drunk or not the extract (macerated) for 7 days. After 10 min, animals were sacrificed, the organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well counter and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in the organs was calculated. The analysis of the results has indicated an increase in the %ATI in the group treated with chayotte extract (0.0040±0.0010 to 0.0060±0.0010). In the diabetes group it was observed a decreased in the %ATI (0.0040±0.0010 to 0.0030±0.0010) as well as in the diabetes group treated with chayotte extract (0.0040±0.0010 to 0.0020±0.0003). Due to the %ATI in the muscle it was verified that there was an increase of the %ATI in the group treated with chayotte extract (0.0090±0.0040 to 0.0230±0.0070) and in the diabetes group treated with chayotte (0.0090±0.0040 to 0.0180±0.0230). It was observed a difference between the group treated with chayotte to the diabetes group (0.0230±0.0070 to 0.009±0.0040) and between the diabetes group to the diabetes group treated with chayotte extract (0.0090±0.0040 to 0.0180±0.0230). Related to %ATI in the spleen by the light of the results it was detect a difference in the uptake of sodium pertechnetate between the group treated with chayotte extract to the diabetes group treated with the referred extract (0.0290±0.0013 to 0.0480±0.0160). Due to the biodistribution it was related that an extract of eggplant was capable of altering the bioavailability of 99mTcO4Na different of a cauliflower extract which has not been able to alter it. It is possible to suggest that some components of chayotte extracts present an oxidant power able to alter the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na, as a tip, we speculate that the referred extract when metabolized in the liver may produce reactive metabolites with oxidant properties linked to the stress which is generated by diabetic status, this fact could justify by the increase of %ATI in the brain, muscle and spleen which probably may be due to the producing of AGEs in diabetes status.
  S.R.F. Moreno , J.J. Carvalho , A.L.R. Nascimento , R.S. Freitas , G.F. Dire , E.A. Lima , G.L. Lima-Filho , E.K. Rocha and M. Bernardo-Filho
  Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb) is a phytoterapic used in the treatment of hypoxic conditions. This medicinal plant has several effects, specially, vasodilator, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. It has antioxidant characteristics. Many substances have been reported to affect the biodistribution of different radiopharmaceuticals. We evaluated the influence of an EGb on: (i) the biodistribution of the technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and (ii) on the morphology of the organs from WISTAR rats. The animals were treated (6 days, intra gastric via) with EGb (40 and 400 mg/ml). After that, Tc-99m was injected and the animals were sacrificed. The organs were isolated and counted in a well counter. The percentages of radioactivity per organ (%ATI/organ) and radioactivity per gram (%ATI/gram) of each organ were calculated. Histological preparations were carried out with the pieces of organs (kidney, liver, duodena) withdrawn from the treated animals (400mg/ml EGb). The results showed that EGb altered (not significant, p>0.05) the biodistribution of the Tc-99m in the kidneys and liver. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in the uptake of this radiopharmaceutical in the duodena after the treatment with EGb 40 mg/ml and with EGb 400 mg/ml was observed (%ATI/organ and %ATI/gram). However, this decrease was not capable to alter the optical microscopy of the duodena. Morphological alterations on kidney and liver due to treatment (in vivo) were found. We suggest that the action of EGb could generate metabolites capable to promote modifications in the organs, such as, kidney and liver and to alter the biodistribution of the Tc-99m in the treated animals.
  S.R.F. Moreno , E.K. Rocha , M. Pereira , C. Mandarim-Lacerda , R.S. Freitas , A.L.R. Nascimento , J.J. Carvalho , G.L. Lima-Filho , G. Dire , E.A.C. Lima and M. Bernardo-Filho
  We have evaluated the influence of the Ginkgo biloba extract (infusion and crude extract) on the labeling of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma proteins with technetium-99m (Tc-99m). We also studied the morphometry of the RBC treated with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb). Blood was withdrawn and incubated with EGb. Stannous chloride was added and, then, Tc-99m was added. Plasma (P) and RBC were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. The morphology of the RBC also was evaluated under optical microscope and morphometry. The analysis of the results shows that there is a decrease in the radioactivity on RBC and on IF of P and of RBC with the EGb. The study of the morphology of RBC showed important morphological alterations due to treatment with EGb. These observations were confirmed by morphometry. We suggest that the chemical agents presents in the Ginkgo biloba extract or its active metabolites could act, with: (i) a chelating action of the ions stannous/pertechnetate or (ii) by damages induced in plasma membrane; (iii) or by competition of the cited ions to the same bindings sites; or (iv) with possible generation of reactive oxygen species that could oxidize the stannous ion.
  G.F. Dire , S.D.D. Vasconcelos , P.R.A. Siqueira , R.M. Duarte , M.C.L. Almeida , J.S. Rodrigues , J.C.S. Oliveira , M.L.Fernandes and M. Bernardo-Filho
  The use of natural products occurs around the world. The labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99m Tc) has been influenced by natural extracts and oxidative stress. Some studies suggested that maternal diabetes can affect the embryology environmental and this fact could help to elucidate that the oxidative stress may be related to the disturb of the gene expression which is essential in the control of the ontogenetic processes. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extract on the labeling of blood elements with 99m Tc in diabetic female rats. The animals were treated with chayotte during 7 days and samples of blood were withdrawn. The samples were incubated with stannous chloride and with 99mTc. Plasma(P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. The radioactivity (ATI%) was rated in RBC, IF-P and IF-C in a well counter. In the diabetic group it was observed an increase in the radioactivity in BC (from 43.65 ± 1.83 to 59.47 ± 1.83 and in the IF-BC (from 26.22 ± 23.58 to 73.28 ± 23.58). It was noticed that the referred extract has normalizing the efficiency of radiolabeling in the diabetic animals which have received the referred extract. The effect of chayotte extract probably, could be explained by the metabolization of the chayotte that would be capable of inducing the generation of active metabolites with oxidant properties probably altering the activity of cell membrane.
  G.L. Lima-Filho , U.C. Araujo , G.M.T. Lima , L.C.M. Aleixo , S.R.F. Moreno , S.D. Santos-Filho , R.S. Freitas , M.V. Castro-Faria and M. Bernardo-Filho
  Copper (Cu2+), a component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain which also functions in iron absorption, mobilization and in maintenance of brain neurotransmitter levels, is well known to generate cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to test a sensitive, simple and low cost enzymatic method based on the urease inhibition by very low concentrations of copper and to use this technique to study the protective effect of phytic acid against copper ions. In this way, an enzymatic method based on the ability of urease to be inhibited by very low concentrations of copper ion was utilized. Inhibition curves showed that copper (0.79 and 1.57 μ M) promoted a 43.82 ± 2.72 and 71.84 ± 6.29% inhibition of the enzyme activity, respectively. Enzyme inhibition by the same copper concentrations in the presence of phytic acid (10 mM) were markedly lower. In conclusion, phytic acid has a copper chellating capacity that may be useful in preventing copper interaction with biomolecules and, accordingly, in lowering the generation of ROS.
  G. Dire , E. Lima , M. Gomes and M. Bernardo-Filho
  The biodistribution of radiopharmaceutical used in diagnostic imaging can be altered by a wide variety of factors. If unknown, the drug interaction with radiopharmaceuticals can lead to misdiagnosis or the necessity to repeat the examination, increasing the dose to the patient. The constituents of herbal products can cause adverse effects. Although natural products are widely used as food or as medicines for humans they can alter the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc) as wells as the bioavailability of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate (99mTcO4Na). 99mTc is one of most used radio nuclide in nuclear medicine and in basic research. Some authors described that natural and synthetic drugs may alter the process of radio labeling. Sechium edule (chayotte) is a vegetable very spent in the human nutrition as the popular medicine due its properties such as the diuretic and the hypotensor effects. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extracts (decoct and macerated) on the radio labeling of blood elements and on the bioavailability of 99mTcO4Na. In this study, blood was withdraw from Wistar rats and the aliquots of blood were incubated with the chayotte extracts decoct and macerated, 0.1g/mL) during 1 hour. After that, blood was incubated with stannous chloride (SnCl2) for 1 hour together with the adding of 99mTc in each breaks of 15min until 1 of incubation with SnCl2 . In each 10 min an aliquot of blood was taken and then plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA 5%) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) were separated. For the biodistribution analysis, the 99mTcO4Na (0.3mL) was administrated into male Wistar rats which had drunk or not the extract (macerated) for 60 days. After 10 min, the animals were sacrificed, the organs were isolated, the radioactivity determined in a well counter and the percentages of radioactivity per gram (%ATI/g) in the organs was calculated. For the radio images analysis, the animals were treated with the extracts (macerated and decoct) during 15 days, after this period of time, it was administrated doses of 100μCi of 99mTcO4Na in the ocular plexus of the animals. The images were obtained after 10min. The qualitative analysis of the images was done. The analysis of the results has demonstrated that the extracts have increased the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc which was incubated together with SnCl2, in the times 0 and 30 min to decoct extract (time 0 min: labeling in the C: from 37.97 ± 0.31 to 59.70 ± 0.56; and in the FIC: from 61.76 ± 0.75 to 73.15 ± 0.37; time 30min: labeling in the C: from 84.06 ± 0.91 to 94.75 ± 0.87; and in the FIC: from 76.72 ± 0.26 to 85.37 ± 0.67) and in the times 15 and 30 min to macerated extract (time 15min: labeling in the C: from 29.04 ± 0.31 to 50.13 ± 0.82; time 30min: labeling in the C: from 75.39 ± 0.77 to 83.42 ± 0.51). The %ATI/g was altered in the thyroid (from 4.57 ± 0.58 to 2.03 ± 1.33); lung (from 0.84 ± 0.25 to 0.21 ± 0.02); stomach (from 5.19 ± 1.34 to 2.03 ± 0.60) and blood (from 50.07 ± 3.36 to 32.25 ± 2.32). In the qualitative analysis it was observed an decreased in the performance of the images related to the stomach region. Due to the biodistribution it was related that an extract of eggplant was capable of altering the bioavailability of 99mTcO4Na different of a cauliflower extract which has not been able to alter it. It is possible to suggest that some components of chayotte extracts present an oxidant power able to alter the biodistribution of 99mTcO4Na, as a tip, we speculate that the referred extract metabolized in the liver may induce the generation of reactive metabolites with oxidant properties, this fact could justify the alteration of the uptake in the organs.
  G. Dire, , Lima, M. , Gomes and M. Bernardo-Filho
  An increasing number of people in the world are using natural products. The constituents of herbal products can cause adverse effects. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extract on the morphology of red blood cells and on the radiolabeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc). In our study, blood was withdraw from Wistar rats. Samples of blood were treated with chayotte extract (decoct) in different concentrations (100; 50; 25; 12.5 and 6.25%v/v) during 1 hour. After that blood was incubated with stannous chloride for more 1 hour. Eplased this time 99mTc as Sodium pertechnetate was added and the incubation continued for more 10 minutes. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. For the morphology analysis, samples of the blood were collected and smears were prepared. The blood smears were dried, fixed and stained. The analysis was done by video optical microscope using image pro-plus program. In our results it was observed that the referred extract was not capable of altering the radiolabeling of blood elements although it was capable to alter the morphology of red blood cels in the highest concentration. The effect of chayotte extract probably, could be explained by an effect which migh alter the stabilizing activity of the red blood cell membrane.
 
 
 
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