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Articles by M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh
Total Records ( 5 ) for M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh
  M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh , Javaid Iqbal , Shuaib Kaleem , Allah Wasaya and M. Ishaque
  A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area of PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi to evaluate the quality parameters of spring planted sunflower hybrids as influenced by varying potassium application doses during two consecutive years i.e. 2008 and 2009. Experiment was quadruplicated using randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement keeping different levels of nutritional area in main plots and sunflower hybrids in subplots. Protein and achene oil contents were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique, where as fatty acid composition was determined by GC-9A Fatty Acid Analyzer. Different levels of nutritional area significantly increased protein content and palmitic acid concentration in achene but reduced oil content when levels of nutritional area vary from 60 x 20 cm2 to 60 x 60 cm2 (2 plants/hill). However, the concentration of oleic, linoleic and linolenic remained un-affected by varying levels of nutritional area. Hybrid Hysun-33 produced significantly higher protein content (18.89%) in achene as compared to S-278. Conversely, hybrid S-278 accumulated significantly higher oil content (43.48 %) as compared to hybrid Hysun-33. No proper pattern was noticed regarding stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid accumulation in achenes. It is concluded that sunflower hybrids exhibited differential genotypic response to different levels of nutritional area by increasing oil contents, palmitic acid concentration and reducing protein contents in achenes without affecting stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid concentration.
  M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh , Shuaib Kaleem , M. Ishaque , Javaid Iqbal , Mahmood A. Randhawa , M. Rasheed and Hammad A. Khan
  Agronomic traits ultimately contribute to final achene yield. Any improvement in agronomic traits means increase in achene yield. For this purpose, a field trial was conducted at experimental area of Agronomy Department, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during two consecutive years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the performance of two sunflower hybrids i.e S-278 and Hysun-33 under different levels of nutritional area i.e, 60 x 20, 60 x 30, 60 x 40, 60 x 50, 60 x 60 (with 1 plant/hill) and 60 x 60 cm-2 (with 2 plants hill). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications in split plot arrangement keeping nutritional areas levels in main plot and sunflower hybrids in sub plot effects. It was observed that among sunflower hybrids, S-278 produced significantly taller plants, heavier 1000-achene weight, higher achene and stalk yield, but lesser harvest index than these in Hysun-33. Both hybrids were, however, similar for head diameter and number of achene/head. Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 produced the highest achene yield (2.89 t/ha), which was also statistically at par with other treatments; whereas sunflower hybrid S-278 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 40 cm2 produced the lowest achene yield (2.45 t/ha). Likewise, sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 40 cm2 computed the highest harvest index (37.75%), which was also statistically at par with other treatments; whereas sunflower hybrid S-278 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 computed the lowest harvest index (31.00%). It is therefore suggested that sunflower hybrid S-278 should be cultivated at level of nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 to get maximum achene and stalk yield.
  Rashid Mahmood , Muhammad Yaseen , Anser Ali , Javaid Iqbal , Safdar Hussain and M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh
  Calcium carbide is well known as a nitrification inhibitor and its role as a source of ethylene (C2H4), a potent plant growth regulator, is not thoroughly investigated. A pot trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of formulated calcium carbide with different doses of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency, growth and yield of wheat. At the 1st step calcium carbide was formulated with polyethylene and plaster of paris and named as Matrix-I (21% calcium carbide, 58% polyethylene and 21% plaster of paris). Wheat cv. Inqulab-91 seeds were sown in pots and 5 plants were maintained. Calcium carbide was applied @ 0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg/kg pot soil with 0, 30 and 60 mg N/kg soil. It was noted that nitrogen fertilizer application significantly enhanced almost all growth and yield parameters of wheat. It was also observed that matrix-I not only improved growth and yield parameters of wheat except plant height, which was reduced by CaC2 application, but also enhanced N uptake by different plant parts of wheat, when applied @ 15 mg CaC2 kg-1 soil at 8 cm soil depth. It was further noted that matrix-I better improved N use efficiency when applied with half recommended dose of N fertilizer than that of with full recommended N fertilizer rate.
  M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh , Riaz Ahmad , Javaid Iqbal , M. Mudassar Maqbool , Anser Ali , M. Ishaque and Safdar Hussain
  Maize is a particular cereal crop which is more affected by variations in plant density than other members of the grass family, due to its low tillering ability, its monoecious floral organization and the presence of a brief flowering period. Different maize cultivars respond differently to K application under varying plant densities, due to different root/shoot ratio, growth rate, crowding stress tolerance, intra-specific competition between plants, K uptake and utilization. Maize cultivars have the ability to withstand high plant density due to more partitioning of assilimilates to shoot as compare to root, resulting in reduction of root/shoot ratio. K application reduces the percent of senescent stalks, lodging and increased crushing strength and rind thickness. There is general consensus that the soils of Pakistan have large capacity to provide K to crop under ordinary conditions, but the increase in the intensity of cropping, excessive use of the tube well water, introduction of the high yielding cultivars requiring high K, increasing use of N and P, could hasten the removal of K from the soils and imbalance the uptake of K in relation to other nutrients. Genotypic and crop species differences exist in response to soil and fertilizer K and non-yield traits such as stalk strength or product quality must be taken into account in K management decisions. K application not only increases grain yield, but also improves quality parameters. K application improves utilization of water, tolerance to drought through stomatal conductance, acceleration in photosynthesis process, water up take through roots. Its application improves leaf area, dry matter accumulation and other allometric parameters. K in combination with N has synergistic influence in uptake, translocation and utilization of nutrients for assimilation in growth and development of final grain yield and its contributing attributes. Normally K deficiency symptoms are usually not conspicuous although grain yield is abruptly decreased (called hidden hunger), but severe deficiency do express symptoms. It is therefore suggested that luxuriant application of K is inevitable for getting successful and maximum production from maize hybrids.
  Anser Ali , Shahzad M.A. Basra , Safdar Hussain , Javaid Iqbal , M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh and Muhammad Sarwar
  Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. Salts taken up by the plants influence the plant growth by inducing adverse effects on different physiological and biochemical processes, including turgor, photosynthesis and enzymatic activities. Mechanisms responsible for reduction in plant growth under salt stress are: (1) Osmotic stress, (2) Specific ion toxicity, (3) Nutritional imbalance and (4) Oxidative stress. Different approaches such as introduction of new genes into genotypes responsible for salt tolerance, screening of large international collections and conduct of field trials on selected genotypes, conventional and non-conventional breeding methods and adequate regulation of mineral nutrients have been employed to enhance salinity tolerance in plants. Saline agriculture and exogenous application of mineral elements including Si has been professed as cost effective approach to ameliorate the salt stress in cereal crops like wheat. Si is categorized as a beneficial element in plant biology. It is unquestionably an important requirement for the normal growth of many plants and must be called as “Quasi essential”. Si amendment also plays a pivotal role to enhance chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and rigidity of plants under stressful conditions. There are different mechanisms by which Si mediates salinity tolerance in plants. It maintains the plant water status under saline conditions. It reduces uptake of Na+ by improving K+: Na+ and also alleviates the toxicity of other heavy metals. It application helps to improve the defensive system of the plants by producing anti-oxidants which in turn detoxify reactive oxygen species. Morphological and physiological improvements in plants were observed due to Si deposition within plant body under salt stress conditions. Silicon improves growth and dry matter production under salt stress conditions. Its application also enhances the crop performance against biotic stress. It is, therefore, suggested that supplemental application of Si must be included in salt stress alleviation management techniques.
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