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Articles by M. A. Pfaller
Total Records ( 7 ) for M. A. Pfaller
  D. Andes , D. J. Diekema , M. A. Pfaller , R. A. Prince , K. Marchillo , J. Ashbeck and J. Hou
  Multiple in vivo studies have characterized the pharmacodynamics of drugs from the triazole and polyene antifungal drug classes. Fewer studies have investigated these pharmacodynamic relationships for the echinocandin drug class. We used a neutropenic murine model of disseminated Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata infection to characterize the time course of activity of the new echinocandin anidulafungin. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) indices (the percentage of time that the drug concentration was above the MIC, the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0-24] to the MIC, and the ratio of the maximum serum drug concentration [Cmax] to the MIC) were correlated with in vivo efficacy, as measured by organism numbers in kidney cultures after 96 h of therapy. The kinetics following intraperitoneal anidulafungin dosing in neutropenic infected mice were monitored. Peak levels and AUCs were linear over the 16-fold dose range studied. The drug elimination half-life in serum ranged from 14 to 24 h. Single-dose postantifungal-effect studies demonstrated prolonged suppression of organism regrowth after serum anidulafungin levels had fallen below the MIC. Of the four dosing intervals studied, treatment with the more widely spaced dosing regimens was most efficacious, suggesting the Cmax/MIC ratio as the PK-PD index most predictive of efficacy. Nonlinear regression analysis suggested that both the Cmax/MIC and AUC/MIC ratios were strongly predictive of treatment success. Studies were then conducted with 13 additional C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata isolates with various anidulafungin susceptibilities (MICs of anidulafungin for these strains, 0.015 to 2.0 µg/ml) to determine if similar Cmax/MIC and AUC0-24/MIC ratios for these isolates were associated with efficacy. The anidulafungin exposures associated with efficacy were similar among Candida species.
  D. R. Andes , D. J. Diekema , M. A. Pfaller , K. Marchillo and J. Bohrmueller
  Previous studies using in vivo candidiasis models have demonstrated that the concentration-associated pharmacodynamic indices, the maximum concentration of a drug in serum/MIC and 24-h area under the curve (AUC)/MIC, are associated with echinocandin treatment efficacy. The current investigations used a neutropenic murine model of disseminated Candida albicans and C. glabrata infection to identify the 24-h AUC/MIC index target associated with a stasis and killing endpoint for the echinocandin, micafungin. The kinetics after intraperitoneal micafungin dosing were determined in neutropenic infected mice. Peak levels and AUC values were linear over the 16-fold dose range studied. The serum drug elimination half-life ranged from 7.5 to 16 h. Treatment studies were conducted with 4 C. albicans and 10 C. glabrata isolates with micafungin MICs varying from 0.008 to 0.25 µg/ml to determine whether similar 24-h AUC/MIC ratios were associated with efficacy. The free drug AUC/MICs associated with stasis and killing (1-log) endpoints were near 10 and 20, respectively. The micafungin exposures associated with efficacy were similar for the two Candida species. Furthermore, the free drug micafungin exposures required to produce stasis and killing endpoints were similar to those recently reported for another echinocandin, anidulafungin, against the identical Candida isolates in this model.
  M. A. Pfaller , L. Boyken , R. J. Hollis , J. Kroeger , S. A. Messer , S. Tendolkar and D. J. Diekema
  The echinocandins are being used increasingly as therapy for invasive candidiasis. Prospective sentinel surveillance for the emergence of in vitro resistance to the echinocandins among invasive Candida sp. isolates is indicated. We determined the in vitro activities of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against 5,346 invasive (bloodstream or sterile-site) isolates of Candida spp. collected from over 90 medical centers worldwide from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2006. We performed susceptibility testing according to the CLSI M27-A2 method and used RPMI 1640 broth, 24-h incubation, and a prominent inhibition endpoint for determination of the MICs. Of 5,346 invasive Candida sp. isolates, species distribution was 54% C. albicans, 14% C. parapsilosis, 14% C. glabrata, 12% C. tropicalis, 3% C. krusei, 1% C. guilliermondii, and 2% other Candida spp. Overall, all three echinocandins were very active against Candida: anidulafungin (MIC50, 0.06 µg/ml; MIC90, 2 µg/ml), caspofungin (MIC50, 0.03 µg/ml; MIC90, 0.25 µg/ml), micafungin (MIC50, 0.015 µg/ml; MIC90, 1 µg/ml). More than 99% of isolates were inhibited by ≤2 µg/ml of all three agents. Results by species (expressed as the percentages of isolates inhibited by ≤2 µg/ml of anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin, respectively) were as follows: for C. albicans, 99.6%, 100%, and 100%; for C. parapsilosis, 92.5%, 99.9%, and 100%; for C. glabrata, 99.9%, 99.9%, and 100%; for C. tropicalis, 100%, 99.8%, and 100%; for C. krusei, 100%, 100%, and 100%; and for C. guilliermondii, 90.2%, 95.1%, and 100%. There was no significant change in the activities of the three echinocandins over the 6-year study period and no difference in activity by geographic region. All three echinocandins have excellent in vitro activities against invasive strains of Candida isolated from centers worldwide. Our prospective sentinel surveillance reveals no evidence of emerging echinocandin resistance among invasive clinical isolates of Candida spp.
  M. A. Pfaller , D.J. Diekema , D.L. Gibbs , V.A. Newell , E. Nagy , S. Dobiasova , M. Rinaldi , R. Barton and A. Veselov
  Candida krusei is well known as a fungal pathogen for patients with hematologic malignancies and for transplant recipients. Using the ARTEMIS Antifungal Surveillance Program database, we describe geographic and temporal trends in the isolation of C. krusei from clinical specimens and the in vitro susceptibilities of 3,448 isolates to voriconazole as determined by CLSI (formerly NCCLS) disk diffusion testing. In addition, we report the in vitro susceptibilities of bloodstream infection isolates of C. krusei to amphotericin B (304 isolates), flucytosine (254 isolates), anidulafungin (121 isolates), caspofungin (300 isolates), and micafungin (102 isolates) as determined by CLSI broth microdilution methods. Geographic differences in isolation were apparent; the highest frequency of isolation was seen for the Czech Republic (7.6%) and the lowest for Indonesia, South Korea, and Thailand (0 to 0.3%). Overall, 83% of isolates were susceptible to voriconazole, ranging from 74.8% in Latin America to 92.3% in North America. C. krusei was most commonly isolated from hematology-oncology services, where only 76.7% of isolates were susceptible to voriconazole. There was no evidence of increasing resistance of C. krusei to voriconazole from 2001 to 2005. Decreased susceptibilities to amphotericin B (MIC at which 90% of isolates were inhibited [MIC90], 4 µg/ml) and flucytosine (MIC90, 16 µg/ml) were noted, whereas 100% of isolates were inhibited by <=2 µg/ml of anidulafungin (MIC90, 0.06 µg/ml), micafungin (MIC90, 0.12 µg/ml) or caspofungin (MIC90, 0.25 µg/ml). C. krusei is an uncommon but multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen. Among the systemically active antifungal agents, the echinocandins appear to be the most active against this important pathogen.
  M. A. Pfaller , S. A. Messer , L. Boyken , C. Rice , S. Tendolkar , R. J. Hollis and D. J. Diekema
  Few data exist to describe in vitro patterns of cross-resistance among large collections of clinical Aspergillus isolates, including those of species other than Aspergillus fumigatus. We examined 771 Aspergillus spp. clinical isolates collected from 2000 to 2006 as part of a global antifungal surveillance program (553 A. fumigatus, 76 A. flavus, 59 A. niger, 35 A. terreus, and 24 A. versicolor isolates and 24 isolates of other Aspergillus species). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A broth dilution method with itraconazole (ITR), posaconazole (POS), ravuconazole (RAV), and voriconazole (VOR). We examined the potential for cross-resistance by using measures of correlation overall and by species. For most Aspergillus isolates (from 88% of isolates for ITR to 98% of isolates for VOR and POS), MICs of each triazole were ≤1 µg/ml. When all 771 isolates were examined, there were statistically significant correlations for all six triazole-triazole pairs. For A. fumigatus, the strongest correlations seen were those between VOR and RAV MICs (r = 0.7) and ITR and POS MICs (r = 0.4). Similarly, for A. flavus, only VOR and RAV MICs and ITR and POS MICs demonstrated statistically significant positive correlations. We have demonstrated correlations among triazole MICs for Aspergillus, which for the most common species (A. fumigatus and A. flavus) were strongest between VOR and RAV MICs and ITR and POS MICs. However, Aspergillus species for which MICs of VOR or POS were >2 µg/ml remain extremely rare (<1% of isolates).
  M. A. Pfaller , D. J. Diekema , L. Ostrosky-Zeichner , J. H. Rex , B. D. Alexander , D. Andes , S. D. Brown , V. Chaturvedi , M. A. Ghannoum , C. C. Knapp , D. J. Sheehan and T. J. Walsh
  The CLSI Antifungal Subcommittee followed the M23-A2 "blueprint" to develop interpretive MIC breakpoints for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin against Candida species. MICs of ≤2 µg/ml for all three echinocandins encompass 98.8 to 100% of all clinical isolates of Candida spp. without bisecting any species group and represent a concentration that is easily maintained throughout the dosing period. Data from phase III clinical trials demonstrate that the standard dosing regimens for each of these agents may be used to treat infections due to Candida spp. for which MICs are as high as 2 µg/ml. An MIC predictive of resistance to these agents cannot be defined based on the data from clinical trials due to the paucity of isolates for which MICs exceed 2 µg/ml. The clinical data set included only three isolates from patients treated with an echinocandin (caspofungin) for which the MICs were >2 µg/ml (two C. parapsilosis isolates at 4 µg/ml and one C. rugosa isolate at 8 µg/ml). Based on these data, the CLSI subcommittee has decided to recommend a "susceptible only" breakpoint MIC of ≤2 µg/ml due to the lack of echinocandin resistance in the population of Candida isolates thus far. Isolates for which MICs exceed 2 µg/ml should be designated "nonsusceptible" (NS). For strains yielding results suggestive of an NS category, the organism identification and antimicrobial-susceptibility test results should be confirmed. Subsequently, the isolates should be submitted to a reference laboratory that will confirm the results by using a CLSI reference dilution method.
  M. A. Pfaller , L. B. Boyken , R. J. Hollis , J. Kroeger , S. A. Messer , S. Tendolkar and D. J. Diekema
  We performed 24- and 48-h MIC determinations and disk diffusion testing of fluconazole against more than 11,000 clinical isolates of Candida species. By using the reference MIC breakpoints, the categorical agreement between the 24-h and reference 48-h broth microdilution results ranged from 93.8% (all Candida species) to 94.9% (all Candida species minus Candida krusei), with only 0.1% very major errors (VME). The essential agreement (within 2 log2 dilutions) between the 24-h and 48-h results was 99.6%. The categorical agreement between the 24-h disk diffusion results and the 24-h MIC results, using the previously established breakpoints, was 94.4%, with 0.1% VME. Both the MIC and the disk diffusion results obtained for fluconazole after only 24 h of incubation may be used to determine the susceptibilities of Candida spp. to this widely used antifungal agent.
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