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Articles by M. A Rosenberg
Total Records ( 2 ) for M. A Rosenberg
  M. R Morissette , S. A Cook , C Buranasombati , M. A Rosenberg and A. Rosenzweig
 

Myostatin is a highly conserved negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Loss of functional myostatin in cattle, mice, sheep, dogs, and humans results in increased muscle mass. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this increase in muscle growth are not fully understood. Previously, we have reported that phenylephrine-induced cardiac muscle growth and Akt activation are enhanced in myostatin knockout mice compared with controls. Here we report that skeletal muscle from myostatin knockout mice show increased Akt protein expression and overall activity at baseline secondary to an increase in Akt mRNA. We examined the functional role of myostatin modulation of Akt in C2C12 myotubes, a well-established in vitro model of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Adenoviral overexpression of myostatin attenuated the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)-mediated increase in myotube diameter, as well as IGF-I-stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Inhibition of myostatin by overexpression of the NH2-terminal portion of myostatin was sufficient to increase myotube diameter and Akt phosphorylation. Coexpression of myostatin and constitutively active Akt (myr-Akt) restored the increase in myotube diameter. Conversely, expression of dominant negative Akt (dn-Akt) with the inhibitory myostatin propeptide blocked the increase in myotube diameter. Of note, ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F box mRNA were increased in skeletal muscle from myostain knockout mice. Together, these data suggest myostatin regulates muscle growth at least in part through regulation of Akt.

  X Song , Y Kusakari , C. Y Xiao , S. D Kinsella , M. A Rosenberg , M Scherrer Crosbie , K Hara , A Rosenzweig and T. Matsui
 

Previous studies have suggested that inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) by rapamycin suppresses myocardial hypertrophy. However, the role of mTOR in the progression of cardiac dysfunction in pathological hypertrophy has not been fully defined. Interestingly, recent reports indicate that the inflammatory response, which plays an important role in the development of heart failure, is enhanced by rapamycin under certain conditions. Our aim in this study was to determine the influence of mTOR on pathological hypertrophy and to assess whether cardiac mTOR regulates the inflammatory response. We generated transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of wild-type mTOR (mTOR-Tg). mTOR-Tg mice were protected against cardiac dysfunction following left ventricular pressure overload induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) (P < 0.01) and had significantly less interstitial fibrosis compared with littermate controls (WT) at 4 wk post-TAC (P < 0.01). In contrast, TAC caused cardiac dysfunction in WT. At 1 wk post-TAC, the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in WT mice but not in mTOR-Tg mice. To further characterize the effects of mTOR activation, we exposed HL-1 cardiomyocytes transfected with mTOR to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). mTOR overexpression suppressed LPS-induced secretion of IL-6 (P < 0.001), and the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and PP242 abolished this inhibitory effect of mTOR. In addition, mTOR overexpression reduced NF-B-regulated transcription in HL-1 cells. These data suggest that mTOR mitigates adverse outcomes of pressure overload and that this cardioprotective effect of mTOR is mediated by regulation of the inflammatory reaction.

 
 
 
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