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Articles by M. A Miller
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. A Miller
  M. A Miller , J Weafer and M. T. Fillmore
 

Aims: Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Methods: Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Results: Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Conclusions: Both biological and social–cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference.

  T Shah , P Newcombe , L Smeeth , J Addo , J. P Casas , J Whittaker , M. A Miller , L Tinworth , S Jeffery , P Strazzullo , F. P Cappuccio and A. D. Hingorani
  Background—

Eligibility for rosuvastatin treatment for cardiovascular disease prevention includes a C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration >2 mg/L. Most observational studies of CRP and cardiovascular disease have been in Europeans. We evaluated the influence of ancestry on population CRP concentration to assess the implications for statin targeting in non-Europeans.

Methods and Results—

In a systematic review and meta-analysis among 221 287 people from 89 studies, geometric mean CRP was 2.6 mg/L (95% credible interval, 2.27 to 2.96) in blacks resident in the United States (n=18 585); 2.51 mg/L (95% CI, 1.18 to 2.86) in Hispanics (n=5049); 2.34 mg/L (95% CI, 1.99 to 2.8) in South Asians (n=1053); 2.03 mg/L (95% CI, 1.77 to 2.3) in whites (n=104 949); and 1.01 mg/L (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.18) in East Asians (n=39 521). Differences were not explained by study design or CRP assay and were preserved after adjustment for age and body mass index. At age 60 years, fewer than half of East Asians but more than two thirds of Hispanics were estimated to have CRP values exceeding 2 mg/L. HapMap frequencies of CRP polymorphisms known to associate with CRP concentration but not coronary heart disease events differed by ancestry. In participant data from the Wandsworth Heart and Stroke Study including European, South Asian and African, and Caribbean-descent subjects, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and smoking contributed to between-group differences in CRP, but the majority of the difference in CRP was unexplained.

Conclusions—

Differences in CRP concentration in populations of diverse ancestry are sufficiently large to affect statin eligibility, based on a single CRP threshold of 2 mg/L, and only partially influenced by differences in variables related to cardiovascular risk. A single threshold value of CRP for cardiovascular risk prediction could lead to inequalities in statin eligibility that may not accurately reflect underlying levels of cardiovascular risk.

  J. D Webster , M. A Miller , D DuSold and J. Ramos Vara
 

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is routinely used in diagnostic pathology to detect infectious agents, to immunophenotype neoplastic cells, and to prognosticate neoplastic diseases. Formalin fixation is considered a limiting factor for IHC because formalin can cross-link antigens and mask epitopes. Prolonged formalin fixation is presumed to result in decreased antigen detection; however, this effect has only been evaluated with a few antibodies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged formalin fixation on the immunohistochemical detection of 61 different antigens. Approximately 5-mm-thick tissue slices were fixed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. Tissue slices were removed from formalin, processed, and paraffin-embedded at 1-day, 3-day, and then at ~1-week intervals. IHC was performed on all sections in tandem after all tissues were processed. Immunoreactions were evaluated by three pathologists according to a four-tier grading system. Immunoreactivity of cytokeratin 7, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, and laminin was diminished by prolonged formalin fixation. However, immunohistochemical reactivity remained moderate to strong with up to 7 weeks of fixation for all other antibodies. These results suggest that prolonged formalin fixation has minimal effects on antigen detection for most commonly used antibodies. These results further validate the use of IHC in diagnostic pathology. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:753–761, 2009)

 
 
 
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