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Articles by M. A Bailey
Total Records ( 3 ) for M. A Bailey
  J. R Manning , M. A Bailey , D. C Soares , D. R Dunbar and J. J. Mullins

11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) is a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) responsible for inactivating cortisol and preventing its binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Nonfunctional mutations in HSD11B2, the gene encoding 11βHSD2, cause the hypertensive syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). Like other such Mendelian disorders, AME is rare but has nevertheless helped to illuminate principles fundamental to the regulation of blood pressure. Furthermore, polymorphisms in HSD11B2 have been associated with salt sensitivity, a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. It is therefore highly likely that sequence variation in HSD11B2, having subtle functional ramifications, will affect blood pressure in the wider population. In this study, a three-dimensional homology model of 11βHSD2 was created and used to hypothesize the functional consequences in terms of protein structure of published mutations in HSD11B2. This approach underscored the strong genotype-phenotype correlation of AME: severe forms of the disease, associated with little in vivo enzyme activity, arise from mutations occurring in invariant alignment positions. These were predicted to exert gross structural changes in the protein. In contrast, those mutations causing a mild clinical phenotype were in less conserved regions of the protein that were predicted to be relatively more tolerant to substitution. Finally, a number of pathogenic mutations are shown to be associated with regions predicted to participate in dimer formation, and in protein stabilization, which may therefore suggest molecular mechanisms of disease.

  X Liu , C. O. C Bellamy , M. A Bailey , L. J Mullins , D. R Dunbar , C. J Kenyon , G Brooker , S Kantachuvesiri , K Maratou , A Ashek , A. F Clark , S Fleming and J. J. Mullins

Severe forms of hypertension are characterized by high blood pressure combined with end organ damage. Through the development and refinement of a transgenic rat model of malignant hypertension incorporating the mouse renin gene, we previously identified a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 10, which affects malignant hypertension severity and morbidity. We next generated an inducible malignant hypertensive model where the timing, severity, and duration of hypertension was placed under the control of the researcher, allowing development of and recovery from end organ damage to be investigated. We have now generated novel consomic Lewis and Fischer rat strains with inducible hypertension and additional strains that are reciprocally congenic for the refined chromosome 10 quantitative trait locus. We have captured a modifier of end organ damage within the congenic region and, using a range of bioinformatic, biochemical and molecular biological techniques, have identified angiotensin-converting enzyme as the modifier of hypertension-induced tissue microvascular injury. Reciprocal differences between angiotensin-converting enzyme and the anti-inflammatory tetrapeptide, N-acetyl-Ser-Asp-Lys-Pro in the kidney, a tissue susceptible to end organ damage, suggest a mechanism for the amelioration of hypertension-dependent damage.

  M. A Bailey , M Grabe and D. C. Devor

Intermediate conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels are gated by the binding of intracellular Ca2+ to calmodulin, a Ca2+-binding protein that is constitutively associated with the C terminus of the channel. Although previous studies indicated that the pore-lining residues along the C-terminal portion of S6 contribute to the activation mechanism, little is known about whether the nonluminal face of S6 contributes to this process. Here we demonstrate that the sulfhydral reagent, parachloromercuribenze sulfonate (PCMBS), modifies an endogenous cysteine residue predicted to have a nonluminal orientation (Cys276) along the sixth transmembrane segment (S6). Modification of Cys276 manipulates the steady-state and kinetic behavior of the channel by shifting the gating equilibrium toward the open state, resulting in a left shift in apparent Ca2+ affinity and a slowing in the deactivation process. Using a six-state gating scheme, our analysis shows that PCMBS slows the transition between the open state back to the third closed state. Interpreting this result in the context of the steady-state and kinetic data suggests that PCMBS functions to shift the gating equilibrium toward the open state by disrupting channel closing. In an attempt to understand whether the nonluminal face of S6 participates in the activation mechanism, we conducted a partial tryptophan scan of this region. Substituting a tryptophan for Leu281 recapitulated the effect on the steady-state and kinetic behavior observed with PCMBS. Considering the predicted nonluminal orientation of Cys276 and Leu281, a simple physical interpretation of these results is that the nonluminal face of S6 forms a critical interaction surface mediating the transition into the closed conformation, suggesting the nonluminal C-terminal portion of S6 is allosterically coupled to the activation gate.

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