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Articles by M Zhang
Total Records ( 24 ) for M Zhang
  L Li , J Xie , M Zhang and S. Wang
 

Homocysteine (Hcy) can induce proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which is a key event in the genesis of the lesions of atherosclerosis. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and H19 are two important regulating molecules of cell proliferation. The role of Hcy in the proliferation of smooth muscle cell by regulating IGF2 and H19 has not been shown or analyzed so far. This study aims to investigate the potential impact of Hcy on gene imprinting of IGF2 and H19. Cultured human umbilical VSMCs were treated with different concentrations of Hcy. The DNA methylation status of VSMCs was assayed by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mRNA levels of H19, IGF2, and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) were detected by reverse transcription PCR, and the protein expression of IGF2 by Western blotting. The results showed that the Hcy treatment resulted in hypomethylation of the sixth CTCF-binding site upstream of H19 of VSMCs. The expression of H19 was increased, whereas the IGF2 mRNA and protein were decreased, the CTCF expression increased with the increase in Hcy concentration. These data indicated that Hcy could induce hypomethylation of the sixth CTCF-binding sites upstream of H19, which is an important regulating area for the imprinting expression of IGF2 and H19. The increased CTCF expression may be a potential mechanism for the demethylation modification of DNA, which resulted from the Hcy treatment.

  C Xia , Q Tong , Q Wang , Z Tang , L Qi , S Chi , M Zhang , X Wang , H Li and G. Xu
  Background

The in vitro directive of the European Union requires traceability to the international recommended reference procedures. The application of the reference procedures is necessary in order to evaluate the accuracy of -glutamyltransferase (GGT) assays of routine measurement systems in China.

Methods

Five frozen patient-pooled serum samples were assigned values by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) reference procedure in order to evaluate the traceability of the results of GGT catalytic activity from six homogeneous systems. One of the serum samples was used to calibrate seven non-homogeneous systems.

Results

All of the homogeneous systems, except the Dade system (Dade Bering Inc, IL, USA), achieved traceability within the measurement range. The Roche and Hitachi systems were better than the other systems. After calibration, the variance of the non-homogeneous systems decreased dramatically from between 14.50% and 25.23% to between 1.25% and 3.09% and the bias decreased from between –11.4% and –4.1% to between 0.5% and 3.5%.

Conclusion

Manufacturers in China should ensure that their calibration systems correspond to the IFCC reference procedures. Fresh frozen pooled patient serum assigned by reference laboratories can be used to calibrate non-homogeneous systems in order to achieve traceability.

  B Lu , N Congdon , X Liu , K Choi , D. S. C Lam , M Zhang , M Zheng , Z Zhou , L Li , A Sharma and Y. Song
 

Objective  To study the associations between near work, outdoor activity, and myopia among children attending secondary school in rural China.

Methods  Among a random cluster sample of 1892 children in Xichang, China, subjects with an uncorrected acuity of 6/12 or less in either eye (n = 984) and a 25% sample of children with normal vision (n = 248) underwent measurement of refractive error. Subjects were administered a questionnaire on parental education, time spent outdoors, and weekly time spent engaged in and preferred working distance for a variety of near-work activities.

Results  Among 1232 children with refraction data, 998 (81.0%) completed the near-work survey. Their mean age was 14.6 years (SD, 0.8 years), 55.6% were girls, and 83.1% had myopia of –0.5 diopters or less (more myopia) in both eyes. Time and diopter-hours spent on near activities did not differ between children with and without myopia. In regression models, time spent on near activities and time outdoors were unassociated with myopia, adjusting for age, sex, and parental education.

Conclusions  These and other recent results raise some doubts about the association between near work and myopia. Additional efforts to identify other environmental factors associated with myopia risk and that may be amenable to intervention are warranted.

  M Zhang , N Congdon , L Li , Y Song , K Choi , Y Wang , Z Zhou , X Liu , A Sharma , W Chen and D. S. C. Lam
 

Objective  To study the effect of myopia and spectacle wear on bicycle-related injuries in rural Chinese students. Myopia is common among Chinese students but few studies have examined its effect on daily activities.

Methods  Data on visual acuity, refractive error, current spectacle wear, and history of bicycle use and accidents during the past 3 years were sought from 1891 students undergoing eye examinations in rural Guangdong province.

Results  Refractive and accident data were available for 1539 participants (81.3%), among whom the mean age was 14.6 years, 52.5% were girls, 26.8% wore glasses, and 12.9% had myopia of less than –4 diopters in both eyes. More than 90% relied on bicycles to get to school daily. A total of 2931 accidents were reported by 423 participants, with 68 requiring medical attention. Male sex (odds ratio, 1.55; P < .001) and spectacle wear (odds ratio, 1.38; P = .04) were associated with a higher risk of accident, but habitual visual acuity and myopia were unassociated with the crash risk, after adjusting for age, sex, time spent riding, and risky riding behaviors.

Conclusion  These results may be consistent with data on motor vehicle accidents implicating peripheral vision (potentially compromised by spectacle wear) more strongly than central visual acuity in mediating crash risk.

  J Zhou , M Zhang , H Fang , O El Mounayri , J. M Rodenberg , A. N Imbalzano and B. P. Herring
 

Objective— Regulatory complexes comprising myocardin and serum response factor (SRF) are critical for the transcriptional regulation of many smooth muscle–specific genes. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the activity of these complexes. In the current study, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes in regulating the myogenic activity of myocardin.

Methods and Results— We found that both Brg1 and Brm are required for maintaining expression of several smooth muscle–specific genes in primary cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, the ability of myocardin to induce expression of smooth muscle–specific genes is abrogated in cells expressing dominant negative Brg1. In SW13 cells, which lack endogenous Brg1 and Brm1, myocardin is unable to induce expression of smooth muscle–specific genes. Whereas, reconstitution of wild-type, or bromodomain mutant forms Brg1 or Brm1, into SW13 cells restored their responsiveness to myocardin. SWI/SNF complexes were found to be required for myocardin to increase SRF binding to the promoters of smooth muscle–specific genes. Brg1 and Brm directly bind to the N terminus of myocardin, in vitro, through their ATPase domains and Brg1 forms a complex with SRF and myocardin in vivo in smooth muscle cells.

Conclusion— These data demonstrate that the ability of myocardin to induce smooth muscle–specific gene expression is dependent on its interaction with SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes.

  M Zhang , L Zhang , J Zou , C Yao , H Xiao , Q Liu , J Wang , D Wang , C Wang and Z. Guo
 

Motivation: According to current consistency metrics such as percentage of overlapping genes (POG), lists of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) detected from different microarray studies for a complex disease are often highly inconsistent. This irreproducibility problem also exists in other high-throughput post-genomic areas such as proteomics and metabolism. A complex disease is often characterized with many coordinated molecular changes, which should be considered when evaluating the reproducibility of discovery lists from different studies.

Results: We proposed metrics percentage of overlapping genes-related (POGR) and normalized POGR (nPOGR) to evaluate the consistency between two DEG lists for a complex disease, considering correlated molecular changes rather than only counting gene overlaps between the lists. Based on microarray datasets of three diseases, we showed that though the POG scores for DEG lists from different studies for each disease are extremely low, the POGR and nPOGR scores can be rather high, suggesting that the apparently inconsistent DEG lists may be highly reproducible in the sense that they are actually significantly correlated. Observing different discovery results for a disease by the POGR and nPOGR scores will obviously reduce the uncertainty of the microarray studies. The proposed metrics could also be applicable in many other high-throughput post-genomic areas.

  C Wu , Z Hu , D Yu , L Huang , G Jin , J Liang , H Guo , W Tan , M Zhang , J Qian , D Lu , T Wu , D Lin and H. Shen
 

Recent three genome-wide association studies have mapped a lung cancer susceptibility locus to chromosome 15q25 in Caucasians. However, the reported risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are extremely rare in Asians, arguing against any of these being causative variants. This study sought to identify other variants on 15q25 associated with lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese. Two-stage case-control studies were conducted in subjects derived from both Northern and Southern China. The first-stage, consisting of 576 cases and 576 controls, was to discover novel risk variants using a haplotype-tagging SNP approach, and these variants were then replicated in the second-stage, consisting of 2,989 cases and 2,880 controls. Associations were estimated by logistic regression models, and function of the variants was examined by biochemical assays. We found that the three risk SNPs reported in Caucasians were not associated with lung cancer risk in Chinese. However, we identified four novel SNPs (rs2036534C>T, rs667282C>T, rs12910984G>A, and rs6495309T>C) that were associated with significantly increased lung cancer risk and smoking behavior, which were all confirmed in the replication analyses [odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) in the dominant model: 1.39 (1.23–1.57; P = 2.3 x 10–7), 1.52 (1.35–1.71; P = 2.0 x 10–12), 1.44 (1.28–1.63; P = 2.7 x 10–9), and 1.43 (1.27–1.61; P = 2.6 x 10–9), respectively]. We characterized the rs6495309T>C change in the CHRNA3 promoter as a functional variant because it affected the Oct-1 binding ability, resulting in increased CHRNA3 expression. These results support 15q25 as a susceptibility region for lung cancer in Chinese but underscore the difference in genetic markers among different ethnic populations. [Cancer Res 2009;69(12):5065–72]

  S. K Park , G Andreotti , A Rashid , J Chen , P. S Rosenberg , K Yu , J Olsen , Y. T Gao , J Deng , L. C Sakoda , M Zhang , M. C Shen , B. S Wang , T. Q Han , B. H Zhang , M Yeager , S. J Chanock and A. W. Hsing
 

Biliary tract cancer encompasses tumors of the gallbladder, bile duct and ampulla of Vater. Gallbladder cancer is more common in women, whereas bile duct cancer is more common in men, suggesting that sex hormones may play a role in the etiology of these cancers. The intracellular action of estrogens is regulated by the estrogen receptor (ESR); thus, we examined the role of common genetic variants in ESR genes on the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones in a population-based case–control study in Shanghai, China (411 cancer cases, 895 stone cases and 786 controls). We genotyped six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four in ESR1 (rs2234693, rs3841686, rs2228480 and rs1801132) and two in ESR2 (rs1256049 and rs4986938). In all participants, the ESR1 rs1801132 (P325P) G allele was associated with excess risks of bile duct [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–2.8] and ampulla of Vater cancers (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 0.9–4.9) compared with the CC genotype. The association with bile duct cancer was apparent among men (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.7) but not among women (P-heterogeneity = 0.01). Also, the ESR2 rs4986938 (38 bp 3' of STP) GG genotype was associated with a higher risk of bile duct cancer (OR = 3.3, 95% CI 1.3–8.7) compared with the AA genotype, although this estimate was based on a small number of subjects. None of the other SNPs examined was associated with biliary tract cancers or stones. False discovery rate-adjusted P-values were not significant (P > 0.1). No association was found for ESR1 haplotype based on four SNPs. These preliminary results suggest that variants in ESR genes could play a role in the etiology of biliary tract cancers, especially bile duct cancer in men.

  S Wang , M Zhang , B Liang , J Xu , Z Xie , C Liu , B Viollet , D Yan and M. H. Zou
 

Rational: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor and ubiquitously expressed in vascular cells. Recent studies suggest that AMPK activation improves endothelial function by counteracting oxidative stress in endothelial cells. How AMPK suppresses oxidative stress remains to be established.

Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMPK in regulating NAD(P)H oxidase, oxidative stress, and endothelial function.

Methods and Results: The markers of oxidative stress, NAD(P)H oxidase subunit expression (gp91phox, p47phox, p67phox, NOX1 to -4), NAD(P)H oxidase–mediated superoxide production, 26S proteasome activity, IB degradation, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-B (p50 and p65) were examined in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells and mouse aortas isolated from AMPK2 deficient mice. Compared to the wild type, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in parallel with increased production of oxidants in AMPK2–/– mice. Further, pretreatment of aorta with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or tempol or apocynin significantly improved acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in AMPK2–/– mice. Analysis of aortic endothelial cells from AMPK2–/– mice and human umbilical vein endothelial cells expressing dominant negative AMPK or AMPK2-specific siRNA revealed that loss of AMPK activity increased NAD(P)H oxidase subunit expression (gp91phox, p47phox, p67phox, NOX1 and -4), NAD(P)H oxidase–mediated superoxide production, 26S proteasome activity, IB degradation, and nuclear translocation of NF-B (p50 and p65), whereas AMPK activation by AICAR or overexpression of constitutively active AMPK had the opposite effect. Consistently, we found that genetic deletion of AMPK2 in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr–/–) strain markedly increased 26S proteasome activity, IB degradation, NF-B transactivation, NAD(P)H oxidase subunit overexpression, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which were largely suppressed by chronic administration of MG132, a potent cell permeable proteasome inhibitor.

Conclusions: We conclude that AMPK2 functions as a physiological suppressor of NAD(P)H oxidase and ROS production in endothelial cells. In this way, AMPK maintains the nonatherogenic and noninflammatory phenotype of endothelial cells.

  S. w Peng , L. y Zhu , M Chen , M Zhang , D. z Li , Y. c Fu , S. r Chen and C. j. Wei
 

Understanding the mechanisms of β-cell dynamics in postnatal animals is central to cure diabetes. A major obstacle in evaluating the status of pancreatic cells is the lack of surface markers. Here we performed quantitative measurements of two internal markers to follow the developmental history of islets. One marker, cell-cycle activity, was established by measuring expression of Ki67 and the incorporation of 5-bromodeoxyuridine. The other marker, the aging process, was delineated by the determination of telomere length. Moreover, islet neogenesis, possibly from ductal precursors, was monitored by pancreatic duct labeling with an enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) transgene. We found that islets from younger animals, on average, expressed higher Ki67 transcripts, displayed elevated 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, and had longer telomeres. However, significant heterogeneity of these parameters was observed among islets from the same mouse. In contrast, the levels of proinsulin-1 transcripts in islets of different ages did not change significantly. Moreover, mitotic activities correlated significantly with telomere lengths of individual islets. Lastly, after 5.5 d pancreatic duct labeling, a few EGFP-positive islets could be identified in neonatal but not from adult pancreases. Compared with unlabeled control islets, EGFP-positive islets had higher mitotic activities and longer telomeres. The results suggest that islets are born at different time points during the embryonic and neonatal stages and imply that young islets might play an important role in the maintenance of islet mass in the adult pancreas.

  J Tang , S Le , L Sun , X Yan , M Zhang , J MacLeod , B LeRoy , N Northrup , A Ellis , T. J Yeatman , Y Liang , M. E Zwick and S. Zhao
 

Human colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the better-understood systems for studying the genetics of cancer initiation and progression. To develop a cross-species comparison strategy for identifying CRC causative gene or genomic alterations, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to investigate copy number abnormalities (CNAs), one of the most prominent lesion types reported for human CRCs, in 10 spontaneously occurring canine CRCs. The results revealed for the first time a strong degree of genetic homology between sporadic canine and human CRCs. First, we saw that between 5% and 22% of the canine genome was amplified/deleted in these tumors, and that, reminiscent of human CRCs, the total altered sequences directly correlated to the tumor's progression stage, origin, and likely microsatellite instability status. Second, when mapping the identified CNAs onto syntenic regions of the human genome, we noted that the canine orthologs of genes participating in known human CRC pathways were recurrently disrupted, indicating that these pathways might be altered in the canine CRCs as well. Last, we observed a significant overlapping of CNAs between human and canine tumors, and tumors from the two species were clustered according to the tumor subtypes but not the species. Significantly, compared with the shared CNAs, we found that species-specific (especially human-specific) CNAs localize to evolutionarily unstable regions that harbor more segmental duplications and interspecies genomic rearrangement breakpoints. These findings indicate that CNAs recurrent between human and dog CRCs may have a higher probability of being cancer-causative, compared with CNAs found in one species only.

  Y Wang , M Zhang , C Moon , Q Hu , B Wang , G Martin , Z Sun and H. Wang
 

FE65 is expressed predominantly in the brain and interacts with the C-terminal domain of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP). We examined hippocampus-dependent memory and in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP) at the CA1 synapses with isoform-specific FE65 knockout (p97FE65–/–) mice. When examined using the Morris water maze, p97FE65–/– mice were impaired for the hidden platform task but showed normal performance in the probe test. To further discriminate the role of FE65 in acquisition and memory consolidation, we examined p97FE65–/– mice with temporal dissociative passive avoidance (TDPA) and contextual fear conditioning (CFC). p97FE65–/– mice showed impaired short-term memory for both TDPA and CFC when tested 10 min after training. After multiple TDPA training sessions, the crossover latency of some p97FE65–/– mice reached the cutoff value, but it significantly decayed in 8 d. At the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses, p97FE65–/– mice showed defective early-phase LTP (E-LTP). These results demonstrate novel roles of FE65 in synaptic plasticity, acquisition, and retention for certain forms of memory formation.

  M Zhang , H Ouyang and G. Xia
 

Fully grown mammalian oocytes are arrested at the first meiotic prophase until a surge of gonadotrophin at the mid-cycle. The actions of gonadotrophins, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), on oocyte meiotic resumption are believed to be mediated in large part through increasing the production of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and subsequent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in its surrounding cumulus granulosa cells. Recent findings indicate that gonadotrophins-induced epidermal growth factor-like growth factors, meiosis activating sterol and gonadal steroid hormones, possibly via protein kinase A II and protein kinase C pathways, are involved in the activation of MAPK. Another second messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate induced by nitric oxide or natriuretic peptides system mediates the function of gonadotrophins during oocyte meiotic resumption. FSH and LH induced pathways may either directly overlap or each hormone may utilize redundant pathways in oocyte maturation. A detailed appreciation of different FSH and LH-activated signaling pathways in mammalian oocytes will be needed in understanding their actions in follicular development and oocyte maturation.

  M Zhang , X. W Fei , Y. L He , G Yang and Y. A. Mei
 

Bradykinin (BK) is an endogenous peptide with diverse biological actions and is considered to be an important mediator of the inflammatory response in both the peripheral and the central nervous systems. BK has attracted recent interest as a potential mediator of K+ conductance, Cl channels, and Ca2+-activated K+ channels. However, few reports have associated BK with the voltage-gated K+ current. In this study, we demonstrated that BK suppressed the transient outward potassium current (IA) in mouse Schwann cells using whole cell recording techniques. At a concentration of 0.1 µM to 5 µM, BK reversibly inhibited IA in a dose-dependent manner with the modulation of steady-state activation and inactivation properties. The effect of BK on IA current was abolished after preincubation with a B2 receptor antagonist but could not be eliminated by B1 receptor antagonist. Intracellular application of GTP-S induced an irreversible decrease in IA, and the inhibition of Gs using NF449 provoked a gradual augmentation in IA and eliminated the BK-induced effect on IA, while the Gi/o antagonist NF023 did not. The application of forskolin or dibutyryl-cAMP mimicked the inhibitory effect of BK on IA and abolished the BK-induced effect on IA. H-89, an inhibitor of PKA, augmented IA amplitude and completely eliminated the BK-induced inhibitory effect on IA. In contrast, activation of PKC by PMA augmented IA amplitude. A cAMP assay revealed that BK significantly increased intracellular cAMP level. It is therefore concluded that BK inhibits the IA current in Schwann cells by cAMP/PKA-dependent pathways via activation of the B2 receptor.

  T Geng , P Li , M Okutsu , X Yin , J Kwek , M Zhang and Z. Yan
 

Endurance exercise stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator-1 (PGC-1) expression in skeletal muscle, and forced expression of PGC-1 changes muscle metabolism and exercise capacity in mice. However, it is unclear if PGC-1 is indispensible for endurance exercise-induced metabolic and contractile adaptations in skeletal muscle. In this study, we showed that endurance exercise-induced expression of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome oxidase IV and cytochrome c) and increases of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1, CD31)-positive endothelial cells in skeletal muscle, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation, were significantly attenuated in muscle-specific Pgc-1 knockout mice. Interestingly, voluntary running effectively restored the compromised mitochondrial integrity and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) protein expression in skeletal muscle in Pgc-1 knockout mice. Thus, PGC-1 plays a functional role in endurance exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, but not IIb-to-IIa fiber-type transformation in mouse skeletal muscle, and the improvement of mitochondrial morphology and antioxidant defense in response to endurance exercise may occur independently of PGC-1 function. We conclude that PGC-1 is required for complete skeletal muscle adaptations induced by endurance exercise in mice.

  M Jiang , X Xu , Y Wang , F Toyoda , X. S Liu , M Zhang , R. B Robinson and G. N. Tseng
 

Cardiac slow delayed rectifier (IKs) channel is composed of KCNQ1 (pore-forming) and KCNE1 (auxiliary) subunits. Although KCNE1 is an obligate IKs component that confers the uniquely slow gating kinetics, KCNE2 is also expressed in human heart. In vitro experiments suggest that KCNE2 can associate with the KCNQ1-KCNE1 complex to suppress the current amplitude without altering the slow gating kinetics. Our goal here is to test the role of KCNE2 in cardiac IKs channel function. Pulse-chase experiments in COS-7 cells show that there is a KCNE1 turnover in the KCNQ1-KCNE1 complex, supporting the possibility that KCNE1 in the IKs channel complex can be substituted by KCNE2 when the latter is available. Biotinylation experiments in COS-7 cells show that although KCNE1 relies on KCNQ1 coassembly for more efficient cell surface expression, KCNE2 can independently traffic to the cell surface, thus becoming available for substituting KCNE1 in the IKs channel complex. Injecting vesicles carrying KCNE1 or KCNE2 into KCNQ1-expressing oocytes leads to KCNQ1 modulation in the same manner as KCNQ1+KCNEx (where x = 1 or 2) cRNA coinjection. Thus, free KCNEx peptides delivered to the cell membrane can associate with existing KCNQ1 channels to modulate their function. Finally, adenovirus-mediated KCNE2 expression in adult guinea pig ventricular myocytes exhibited colocalization with native KCNQ1 protein and reduces the native IKs current density. We propose that in cardiac myocytes the IKs current amplitude is under dynamic control by the availability of KCNE2 subunits in the cell membrane.

  M Zhang , C Fennell , L Ranford Cartwright , R Sakthivel , P Gueirard , S Meister , A Caspi , C Doerig , R. S Nussenzweig , R Tuteja , W. J Sullivan , D. S Roos , B. M. A Fontoura , R Menard , E. A Winzeler and V. Nussenzweig
 

Sporozoites, the invasive form of malaria parasites transmitted by mosquitoes, are quiescent while in the insect salivary glands. Sporozoites only differentiate inside of the hepatocytes of the mammalian host. We show that sporozoite latency is an active process controlled by a eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) kinase (IK2) and a phosphatase. IK2 activity is dominant in salivary gland sporozoites, leading to an inhibition of translation and accumulation of stalled mRNAs into granules. When sporozoites are injected into the mammalian host, an eIF2 phosphatase removes the PO4 from eIF2-P, and the repression of translation is alleviated to permit their transformation into liver stages. In IK2 knockout sporozoites, eIF2 is not phosphorylated and the parasites transform prematurely into liver stages and lose their infectivity. Thus, to complete their life cycle, Plasmodium sporozoites exploit the mechanism that regulates stress responses in eukaryotic cells.

 
 
 
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