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Articles by M Yamada
Total Records ( 8 ) for M Yamada
  J Suzuki , M Ueno , M Uno , Y Hirose , Y Zenimaru , S Takahashi , J. i Osuga , S Ishibashi , M Takahashi , M Hirose , M Yamada , F. B Kraemer and I. Miyamori

Increased fatty acid (FA) flux and intracellular lipid accumulation (steatosis) give rise to cardiac lipotoxicity in both pathological and physiological conditions. Since hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) contributes to intracellular lipolysis in adipose tissue and heart, we investigated the impact of HSL disruption on cardiac energy metabolism in response to fasting and refeeding. HSL-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were fasted for 24 h, followed by ~6 h of refeeding. Plasma FA concentration in WT mice was elevated twofold with fasting, whereas KO mice lacked this elevation, resulting in twofold lower cardiac FA uptake compared with WT mice. Echocardiography showed that fractional shortening was 15% decreased during fasting in WT mice and was associated with steatosis, whereas both of these changes were absent in KO mice. Compared with Langendorff-perfused hearts isolated from fasted WT mice, the isolated KO hearts also displayed higher contractile function and a blunted response to FA. Although cardiac glucose uptake in KO mice was comparable with WT mice under all conditions tested, cardiac VLDL uptake and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity were twofold higher in KO mice during fasting. The KO hearts showed undetectable activity of neutral cholesteryl esterase and 40% lower non-LPL triglyceride lipase activity compared with WT hearts in refed conditions accompanied by overt steatosis, normal cardiac function, and increased mRNA expression of adipose differentiation-related protein. Thus, the dissociation between cardiac steatosis and functional sequelae observed in HSL-KO mice suggests that excess FA influx, rather than steatosis per se, appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiac lipotoxicity.

  T Satoh , T Ishizuka , T Tomaru , S Yoshino , Y Nakajima , K Hashimoto , N Shibusawa , T Monden , M Yamada and M. Mori

The 26S proteasome, which degrades ubiquitinated proteins, appears to contribute to the cyclical loading of androgen receptor (AR) to androgen response elements of target gene promoters; however, the mechanism whereby the 26S proteasome modulates AR recruitment remains unknown. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we previously identified Tat-binding protein-1 (TBP-1), an adenosine triphosphatase of 19S regulatory particles of the 26S proteasome, as a transcriptional coactivator of thyroid hormone receptor. Independently, TBP-1-interacting protein (TBPIP) was also identified as a coactivator of several nuclear receptors, including AR. Here, we investigated whether TBP-1 could interact with and modulate transcriptional activation by AR cooperatively with TBPIP. TBP-1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, including the testis and prostate, as well as in LNCaP cells. TBP-1 directly bound TBPIP through the amino-terminal domain possessing the leucine zipper structure. AR is physically associated with TBP-1 and TBPIP in vitro and in LNCaP cells. TBP-1 similarly and additively augmented AR-mediated transcription upon coexpression with TBPIP, and the ATPase domain, as well as leucine zipper structure in TBP-1, was essential for transcriptional enhancement. Overexpression of TBP-1 did not alter AR protein and mRNA levels. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, TBP-1 was transiently recruited to the proximal androgen response element of the prostate-specific antigen gene promoter in a ligand-dependent manner in LNCaP cells. These findings suggest that a component of 19S regulatory particles directly binds AR and might participate in AR-mediated transcriptional activation in cooperation with TBPIP.

  K Hashimoto , E Ishida , S Matsumoto , S Okada , M Yamada , T Satoh , T Monden and M. Mori

The molecular mechanism of thyroid hormone (TH) effects to fatty acid metabolism in liver is yet to be clear. The carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) as well as sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c plays a pivotal role in hepatic lipogenesis. Both SREBP-1c and ChREBP are target genes of liver X receptors (LXRs). Because LXRs and TH receptors (TRs) cross talk mutually in many aspects of transcription, we examined whether TRs regulate the mouse ChREBP gene expression. In the current study, we demonstrated that TH up-regulated mouse ChREBP mRNA and protein expression in liver. Run-on and luciferase assays showed that TH and TR-β1 positively regulated the ChREBP gene transcription. The mouse ChREBP gene promoter contains two direct repeat-4 sites (LXRE1 and LXRE2) and EMSAs demonstrated that LXR- and TR-β1 prefer to bind LXRE1 and LXRE2, respectively. The direct repeat-4 deletion and LXRE2 mutants of the promoter deteriorate the positive regulation by TR-β1, indicating that LXRE2 is functionally important for the regulation. We also showed that human ChREBP gene expression and promoter activities were up-regulated by TH. These data suggest that ChREBP mRNA expression is positively regulated by TR-β1 and TH at the transcriptional level in mammals. This novel observation indicates that TH fine-tunes hepatic lipogenesis via regulating SREBP-1c and ChREBP gene expression reciprocally.

  R Umezawa , M Yamada , K Horiguchi , S Ishii , K Hashimoto , S Okada , T Satoh and M. Mori

We reported a novel mutation of thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-β, F455S, in a patient with pituitary resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), who showed impaired release of nuclear receptor corepressor and abnormal histone deacetylation. In the present study, we further analyzed the histone modifications and the dynamics of TR and RNA polymerase II on the TRH gene. The lysine residues 9 (H3K9) and 14 (K14) of the histone H3 were acetylated in the absence of thyroid hormone (TH), and addition of TH caused a temporary deacetylation of both residues. Although H3K4 was di- and trimethylated in the absence of T3, no methylation of H3K9 or K27 was detected. Long-term incubation with T3 decreased the level of trimethylated H3K4, the amount of TR, and the level of phosphorylated RNA polymerase II but not dimethylated H3K4. Treatment with an inhibitor for H3K4 methyltransferase, 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine, decreased basal promoter activity but did not affect the repression by TH. Conversely, overexpression of MLL, an H3K4-specific methyltransferase, caused an increase in basal activity. In the presence of F455S, methylation of H3K4 and the dynamics of TR were intact, but both H3K9 and H3K14 were hyperacetylated, and T3-induced deacetylation was impaired, resulting in a high transcriptional level. These findings demonstrated that 1) negative regulation of the TRH gene by TH involves both the acetylation and methylation of specific residues of histone tails and changing the amount of TR, and 2) the major impairment to histone modifications in F455S was hyperacetylation of the specific histone tails.

  K Mikami , D Yamaguchi , H Tateno , D Hu , S. Y Qin , N Kawasaki , M Yamada , N Matsumoto , J Hirabayashi , Y Ito and K. Yamamoto

Misfolded glycoproteins are translocated from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the cytoplasm for proteasome-mediated degradation. OS-9 protein is thought to participate in ER-associated glycoprotein degradation (ERAD). The recombinant biotinylated mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain of human OS-9 (OS-9MRH) together with six kinds of mutated OS-9MRH were prepared and mixed with R-phycoerythrin (PE)-labeled streptavidin to form tetramers (OS-9MRH-SA). The PE-labeled OS-9MRH-SA bound to HeLaS3 cells in a metal ion-independent manner through amino acid residues homologous to those participating in sugar binding of the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, and this binding was greatly increased by swainsonine, deoxymannojirimycin, or kifunensine treatment. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-deficient Lec1 cells, but not Lec2 or Lec8 cells, were also strongly bound by the tetramer. OS-9MRH-SA binding to the cells was strongly inhibited by Man1,6(Man1,3)Man1,6(Man1,3)Man and Man1,6Man. To further determine the specificity of native ligands for OS-9MRH, frontal affinity chromatography was performed using a wide variety of 92 different oligosaccharides. We found that several N-glycans containing terminal 1,6-linked mannose in the Man1,6(Man1,3)Man1,6(Man1,3)Man structure were good ligands for OS-9MRH, having Ka values of approximately 104 M–1 and that trimming of either an 1,6-linked mannose from the C-arm or an 1,3-linked mannose from the B-arm abrogated binding to OS-9MRH. An immunoprecipitation experiment demonstrated that the 1-antitrypsin variant nullHong Kong, but not wild-type 1-antitrypsin, selectively interacted with OS-9 in the cells in a sugar-dependent manner. These results suggest that trimming of the outermost 1,2-linked mannose on the C-arm is a critical process for misfolded proteins to enter ERAD.

  R Tatsumi , Y Sankoda , J. E Anderson , Y Sato , W Mizunoya , N Shimizu , T Suzuki , M Yamada , R. P Rhoads , Y Ikeuchi and R. E. Allen

Regenerative coordination and remodeling of the intramuscular motoneuron network and neuromuscular connections are critical for restoring skeletal muscle function and physiological properties. The regulatory mechanisms of such coordination remain unclear, although both attractive and repulsive axon guidance molecules may be involved in the signaling pathway. Here we show that expression of a neural secreted chemorepellent semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is remarkably upregulated in satellite cells of resident myogenic stem cells that are positioned beneath the basal lamina of mature muscle fibers, when treated with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), established as an essential cue in muscle fiber growth and regeneration. When satellite cells were treated with HGF in primary cultures of cells or muscle fibers, Sema3A message and protein were upregulated as revealed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunochemical studies. Other growth factors had no inductive effect except for a slight effect of epidermal growth factor treatment. Sema3A upregulation was HGF dose dependent with a maximum (about 7- to 8-fold units relative to the control) at 10–25 ng/ml and occurred exclusively at the early-differentiation stage, as characterized by the level of myogenin expression and proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) of the cells. Neutralizing antibody to the HGF-specific receptor, c-met, did not abolish the HGF response, indicating that c-met may not mediate the Sema3A expression signaling. Finally, in vivo Sema3A was upregulated in the differentiation phase of satellite cells isolated from muscle regenerating following crush injury. Overall, the data highlight a heretofore unexplored and active role for satellite cells as a key source of Sema3A expression triggered by HGF, hence suggesting that regenerative activity toward motor innervation may importantly reside in satellite cells and could be a crucial contributor during postnatal myogenesis.

  M Yamada , R Tatsumi , K Yamanouchi , T Hosoyama , S. i Shiratsuchi , A Sato , W Mizunoya , Y Ikeuchi , M Furuse and R. E. Allen

Skeletal muscle regeneration and work-induced hypertrophy rely on molecular events responsible for activation and quiescence of resident myogenic stem cells, satellite cells. Recent studies demonstrated that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) triggers activation and entry into the cell cycle in response to mechanical perturbation, and that subsequent expression of myostatin may signal a return to cell quiescence. However, mechanisms responsible for coordinating expression of myostatin after an appropriate time lag following activation and proliferation are not clear. Here we address the possible role of HGF in quiescence through its concentration-dependent negative-feedback mechanism following satellite cell activation and proliferation. When activated/proliferating satellite cell cultures were treated for 24 h beginning 48-h postplating with 10–500 ng/ml HGF, the percentage of bromodeoxyuridine-incorporating cells decreased down to a baseline level comparable to 24-h control cultures in a HGF dose-dependent manner. The high level HGF treatment did not impair the cell viability and differentiation levels, and cells could be reactivated by lowering HGF concentrations to 2.5 ng/ml, a concentration that has been shown to optimally stimulate activation of satellite cells in culture. Coaddition of antimyostatin neutralizing antibody could prevent deactivation and abolish upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21. Myostatin mRNA expression was upregulated with high concentrations of HGF, as demonstrated by RT-PCR, and enhanced myostatin protein expression and secretion were revealed by Western blots of the cell lysates and conditioned media. These results indicate that HGF could induce satellite cell quiescence by stimulating myostatin expression. The HGF concentration required (over 10–50 ng/ml), however, is much higher than that for activation, which is initiated by rapid release of HGF from its extracellular association. Considering that HGF is produced by satellite cells and spleen and liver cells in response to muscle damage, local concentrations of HGF bathing satellite cells may reach a threshold sufficient to induce myostatin expression. This time lag may delay action of the quiescence signaling program in proliferating satellite cells during initial phases of muscle regeneration followed by induction of quiescence in a subset of cells during later phases.

  Y Minegishi , M Saito , M Nagasawa , H Takada , T Hara , S Tsuchiya , K Agematsu , M Yamada , N Kawamura , T Ariga , I Tsuge and H. Karasuyama

Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by atopic manifestations and susceptibility to infections with extracellular pathogens, typically Staphylococcus aureus, which preferentially affect the skin and lung. Previous studies reported the defective differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in HIES patients caused by hypomorphic STAT3 mutations. However, the apparent contradiction between the systemic Th17 deficiency and the skin/lung-restricted susceptibility to staphylococcal infections remains puzzling. We present a possible molecular explanation for this enigmatic contradiction. HIES T cells showed impaired production of Th17 cytokines but normal production of classical proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin 1β. Normal human keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells were deeply dependent on the synergistic action of Th17 cytokines and classical proinflammatory cytokines for their production of antistaphylococcal factors, including neutrophil-recruiting chemokines and antimicrobial peptides. In contrast, other cell types were efficiently stimulated with the classical proinflammatory cytokines alone to produce such factors. Accordingly, keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells, unlike other cell types, failed to produce antistaphylococcal factors in response to HIES T cell–derived cytokines. These results appear to explain, at least in part, why HIES patients suffer from recurrent staphylococcal infections confined to the skin and lung in contrast to more systemic infections in neutrophil-deficient patients.

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