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Articles by M Taniguchi
Total Records ( 5 ) for M Taniguchi
  M Inoue , D Jinbo , Y Nakamura , M Taniguchi and K. Urakami

Aim. To evaluate the capability of a computerized test battery for Alzheimer's disease screening which has been newly developed to provide a standardized and efficient method for widespread use in routine clinical and community-based settings.

Methods. Participants were 72 individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease and 102 healthy elderly individuals. Both groups were tested by the battery. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to examine the ability of the battery to differentiate between those with Alzheimer's disease and cognitively healthy elderly individuals.

Results. On a group level, the Alzheimer's disease group performed worse than the control group on each of the 4 computerized test tasks. Receiver operating characteristic analysis yielded maximum sensitivity and specificity values of 96% and 86% for total scores, respectively.

Conclusion. We believe the battery is very useful for routine clinical and community-based settings.

  H Inagaki , M Taniguchi , K Muramoto , H Kaba , Y Takeuchi and Y. Mori

Propylene glycol (PG) is commonly used as a solvent for odorous chemicals employed in studies of the olfactory system because PG has been considered to be odorless for humans and other animals. However, if laboratory rats can detect the vapor of PG and if exposure to this influences behaviors, such effects might confound data obtained from experiments exposing conscious rats to odorants dissolved in PG. Therefore, we examined this issue using differences in the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) as an index. We also conducted a habituation/dishabituation test to assess the ability of rats to detect the vapor of PG. In addition, we observed Ca2+ responses of vomeronasal neurons (VNs) in rats exposed to PG using the confocal Ca2+-imaging approach. Pure PG vapor significantly enhanced the ASR at a dose of 1 x 10–4 M, which was much lower than the dose for efficiently detecting. In Ca2+ imaging, VNs were activated by PG at a dose of 1 x 10–4 M or lower. These results suggest that PG vapor acts as an aversive stimulus to rats at very low doses, even lower than those required for its detection, indicating that we should consider such effect of PG when it is employed as a solvent for odorants in studies using conscious rats. In addition, our study suggests that some non-pheromonal volatile odorants might affect animal behaviors via the vomeronasal system.

  M Taniguchi , T Tashiro , N Dashtsoodol , N Hongo and H. Watarai

Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells bridge innate and acquired immunity and play an important role in both protective and regulatory responses. The nature of the response is dictated by the initial cytokine environment: interaction with IL-10-producing cells induces negative regulatory Th2/regulatory T cell-type iNKT cells, while that with IL-12-producing cells results in pro-inflammatory Th1-type responses. Particularly, in the anti-tumor response, iNKT cells mediate adjuvant activity by their production of IFN-, which in turn activates both innate and acquired immune systems. Thus, upon activation of iNKT cells, both MHC and MHC+ tumor cells can be efficiently eliminated. On the basis of these mechanisms, iNKT cell-targeted adjuvant cell therapies have been developed and have shown great promise in initial clinical trials on cancer patients.

  S Chanyotha , W. C Burnett , M Taniguchi , R Kritsananuwat and P. Sriploy

This study aims to introduce thoron (220Rn), a naturally occurring isotope, as a new groundwater tracer for detecting groundwater seepage into Bangkok canals. Previous studies by the group using radioactive radon (222Rn) and conductivity as groundwater tracers suggested that there is shallow groundwater seeping into the man-made canals (‘klongs’) around Bangkok. Furthermore, the groundwater was shown to be an important pathway of nutrient contamination to the surface waters. Thoron is a member of the natural 232Th decay chain, has exactly the same chemical properties as radon, but has a much shorter half-life (56 s) than radon (3.84 d). By using its advantage of rapid decay, if one detects thoron in the environment, there must be a source nearby. Thus, thoron is potentially an excellent prospecting tool. In the case of measurements in natural waters, sources of thoron should indicate the point of groundwater discharges more precisely than radon. During the surveys in the canals of Bangkok, thoron was successfully measured and its distribution was more variable than that of radon, suggesting that seepage into the canals is not uniform.

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