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Articles by M Shinohara
Total Records ( 2 ) for M Shinohara
  N Sasaki , T Yamashita , M Takeda , M Shinohara , K Nakajima , H Tawa , T Usui and K. i. Hirata
 

Background— Accumulating evidence suggests that several subsets of regulatory T cells that actively mediate immunologic tolerance play crucial roles in atherogenesis. Recently, orally administered anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody has been shown as an inducer of novel regulatory T cells expressing latency-associated peptide (LAP) on their surface, which potently prevents systemic autoimmunity. In the present study, we hypothesized that oral anti-CD3 antibody treatment may inhibit atherosclerosis in mice.

Methods and Results— Six-week-old apolipoprotein E–deficient mice on a standard diet were orally given anti-CD3 antibody or control immunoglobulin G on 5 consecutive days, and atherosclerosis was assessed at age 16 weeks. Oral administration of anti-CD3 antibody significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion formation and accumulations of macrophages and CD4+ T cells in the plaques compared with controls. We observed a significant increase in LAP+ cells and CD25+Foxp3+ cells in the CD4+ T-cell population in anti-CD3–treated mice, in association with increased production of the antiinflammatory cytokine transforming growth factor-β and suppressed T-helper type 1 and type 2 immune responses. Neutralization of transforming growth factor-β in vivo abrogated the preventive effect of oral anti-CD3 antibody.

Conclusions— Our findings indicate the atheroprotective role of oral anti-CD3 antibody treatment in mice via induction of a regulatory T-cell response. These findings suggest that oral immune modulation may represent an attractive therapeutic approach to atherosclerosis.

  K Teshima , R Murakami , E Tomitaka , T Nomura , R Toya , A Hiraki , H Nakayama , T Hirai , M Shinohara , N Oya and Y. Yamashita
  Objective

To evaluate whether saliva production reflects the parotid volume during the course of radiation therapy (RT) in patients with head-and-neck cancer.

Methods

Twenty patients with advanced oral squamous cell carcinomas, who were treated with preoperative chemo-RT, underwent morphological assessment with CT or MRI and functional assessment with the Saxon test. For the Saxon test, saliva production was measured by weighing a gauze pad before and 2 min after chewing without swallowing; the low-normal value is 2 g. Saliva production and parotid volumes before and 2 weeks after RT were compared with the paired t-test, the Spearman rank correlation test and the Fisher exact test.

Results

After 30 Gy irradiation, mean saliva production was decreased from 4.2 to 1.0 g (P < 0.01); the reduction in saliva production ranged from 1.7 to 5.4 g (mean 3.2 g). The mean parotid volume was decreased from 68.2 to 47.9 cm3 (P < 0.01); the post-RT:pre-RT parotid volume ratio ranged from 54% to 85% (mean 71%). Although the initial parotid `volume was correlated with initial saliva production (r = 0.47, P = 0.04), no significant correlation was noted after RT (r = 0.08, P = 0.71), and there were considerable individual variations. The parotid volume ratio was inversely correlated with the saliva-reduction amount (r = – 0.79, P < 0.01).

Conclusions

There was a correlation between decreased parotid gland volume and decreased saliva production in patients with head-and-neck cancer undergoing RT. Parotid volume reduction may predict parotid gland function.

 
 
 
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