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Articles by M Sato
Total Records ( 6 ) for M Sato
  T Nedachi , H Hatakeyama , T Kono , M Sato and M. Kanzaki

Physical exercise triggers the release of several cytokines/chemokines from working skeletal muscles, but the underlying mechanism(s) by which skeletal muscles decipher and respond to highly complex contractile stimuli remains largely unknown. In an effort to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of the expressions of two contraction-inducible CXC chemokines, CXCL1/KC and CXCL5/LIX, in contracting skeletal muscle cells, we took advantage of our in vitro exercise model using highly developed contractile C2C12 myotubes, which acquire properties similar to those of in vivo skeletal muscle via manipulation of Ca2+ transients with electric pulse stimulation (EPS). Production of these CXC chemokines was immediately augmented by EPS-evoked contractile activity in a manner dependent on the activities of JNK and NF-B, but not p38, ERK1/2, or calcineurin. Intriguingly, exposure of myotubes to cyclic mechanical stretch also induced expression of these CXC chemokines; however, a much longer period of stimulation (~12 h) was required, despite rapid JNK phosphorylation. We also demonstrate herein that CXCL1/KC and CXCL5/LIX have the ability to raise intracellular Ca2+ concentrations via CXCR2-mediated activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi proteins in C2C12 myoblasts, an action at least partially responsible for their migration and differentiation. Although we revealed a possible negative feedback regulation of their own production in response to the contractile activity in differentiated myotubes, exogenous administration of these CXC chemokines did not acutely influence either insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation or GLUT4 translocation in C2C12 myotubes. Taken together, these data shed light on the fundamental characteristics of contraction-inducible CXC chemokine production and their potential roles in skeletal muscle cells.

  K Otsu , Y Toya , J Oshikawa , R Kurotani , T Yazawa , M Sato , U Yokoyama , S Umemura , S Minamisawa , S Okumura and Y. Ishikawa

Caveolin, a member of the membrane-anchoring protein family, accumulates various growth receptors in caveolae and inhibits their function. Upregulation of caveolin attenuates cellular proliferation and growth. However, the role of caveolin in regulating insulin signals remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that caveolin potently enhances insulin receptor (IR) signaling when overexpressed in the liver in vivo. Adenovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to overexpress caveolin specifically in the liver of diabetic obese mice, which were generated with a high-fat diet. Expression of molecules involved in IR signaling, such as IR or Akt, remained unchanged after gene transfer. However, hepatic glycogen synthesis was markedly increased with a decrease in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase protein expression. Insulin sensitivity was increased after caveolin gene transfer as determined by decreased blood glucose levels in response to insulin injection and fasting blood glucose levels. Glucose tolerant test performance was also improved. Similar improvements were obtained in KKAy genetically diabetic mice. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of caveolin-3 in hepatic cells also enhanced IR signaling, as shown by increased phosphorylation of IR in response to insulin stimulation and higher glycogen synthesis at baseline. These effects were attributed mostly to increased insulin receptor activity and caveolin-mediated, direct inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, which was increased in obese mouse livers. In conclusion, our results suggest that caveolin is an important regulator of glucose metabolism that can enhance insulin signals.

  M Sato , Y Ito , N Arima , M Baba , M Sobel , M Wakao and Y. Suda

To analyse the binding of sugar chains to proteins, viruses and cells, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technique is very convenient and effective because it is a real-time, non-destructive detection system. Key to this method is linker compounds for immobilization of the sugar chains to the gold-coated chip for SPR. Also, well-designed fluorescent labelling reagents are essential when analysing the structure of trace amounts of sugar chains derived from natural sources, such as glycoproteins on the surface of specific cells. In this report, we developed a novel linker molecule, named ‘f-mono’, which has both of these properties: simple immobilization chemistry and a fluorescent label. Since the molecule contains a 2,5-diaminopyridyl group and a thioctic acid group, conjugation with sugar chains can be achieved using the well-established reductive amination reaction. This conjugate of sugar chain and fluorescent linker (fluorescent ligand-conjugate, FLC) has fluorescent properties (ex. 335 nm, em. 380 nm), and as little as 1 µg of FLC can be easily purified using HPLC with a fluorescent detector. MS and MS/MS analysis of the FLC is also possible. As a +2 Da larger MS peak ([M + H + 2]+ ion) was always associated with the theoretical MS peak ([M + H]+) (due to the reduction of the thioctic acid moiety), the MS peaks of the FLC were easily found, even using unfractionated crude samples. Immobilization of the FLC onto gold-coated chips, and their subsequent SPR analyses were successively accomplished, as had been performed previously using non-fluorescent ligand conjugates.

  K Tsunekawa , T Shijuku , M Hayashimoto , Y Kojima , K Onai , M Morishita , M Ishiura , T Kuroda , T Nakamura , H Kobayashi , M Sato , K Toyooka , K Matsuoka , T Omata and N. Uozumi

Na+/H+ antiporters influence proton or sodium motive force across the membrane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has six genes encoding Na+/H+ antiporters, nhaS1–5 and sll0556. In this study, the function of NhaS3 was examined. NhaS3 was essential for growth of Synechocystis, and loss of nhaS3 was not complemented by expression of the Escherichia coli Na+/H+ antiporter NhaA. Membrane fractionation followed by immunoblotting as well as immunogold labeling revealed that NhaS3 was localized in the thylakoid membrane of Synechocystis. NhaS3 was shown to be functional over a pH range from pH 6.5 to 9.0 when expressed in E. coli. A reduction in the copy number of nhaS3 in the Synechocystis genome rendered the cells more sensitive to high Na+ concentrations. NhaS3 had no K+/H+ exchange activity itself but enhanced K+ uptake from the medium when expressed in an E. coli potassium uptake mutant. Expression of nhaS3 increased after shifting from low CO2 to high CO2 conditions. Expression of nhaS3 was also found to be controlled by the circadian rhythm. Gene expression peaked at the beginning of subjective night. This coincided with the time of the lowest rate of CO2 consumption caused by the ceasing of O2-evolving photosynthesis. This is the first report of a Na+/H+ antiporter localized in thylakoid membrane. Our results suggested a role of NhaS3 in the maintenance of ion homeostasis of H+, Na+, and K+ in supporting the conversion of photosynthetic products and in the supply of energy in the dark.

  Y Chikashige , M Yamane , K Okamasa , C Tsutsumi , T Kojidani , M Sato , T Haraguchi and Y. Hiraoka

A screen identifies two more bouquet proteins required for meiotic telomere clustering: Bqt4 anchors the telomeres, whereas Bqt3 protects Bqt4 from degradation.

  M Jinushi , M Sato , A Kanamoto , A Itoh , S Nagai , S Koyasu , G Dranoff and H. Tahara

Carcinogenesis reflects the dynamic interplay of transformed cells and normal host elements, but cancer treatments typically target each compartment separately. Within the tumor microenvironment, the secreted protein milk fat globule epidermal growth factor–8 (MFG-E8) stimulates disease progression through coordinated vβ3 integrin signaling in tumor and host cells. MFG-E8 enhances tumor cell survival, invasion, and angiogenesis, and contributes to local immune suppression. We show that systemic MFG-E8 blockade cooperates with cytotoxic chemotherapy, molecularly targeted therapy, and radiation therapy to induce destruction of various types of established mouse tumors. The combination treatments evoke extensive tumor cell apoptosis that is coupled to efficient dendritic cell cross-presentation of dying tumor cells. This linkage engenders potent antitumor effector T cells but inhibits FoxP3+ T reg cells, thereby achieving long-term protective immunity. Collectively, these findings suggest that systemic MFG-E8 blockade might intensify the antitumor activities of existing therapeutic regimens through coordinated cell-autonomous and immune-mediated mechanisms.

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