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Articles by M Pencina
Total Records ( 2 ) for M Pencina
  M. D Howell , V Novack , P Grgurich , D Soulliard , L Novack , M Pencina and D. Talmor
 

Background  The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections are increasing. Acid-suppressive therapy has been suggested as a risk factor for C difficile, but this remains controversial.

Methods  We conducted a pharmacoepidemiologic cohort study, performing a secondary analysis of data collected prospectively on 101 796 discharges from a tertiary care medical center during a 5-year period. The primary exposure of interest was acid suppression therapy, classified by the most intense acid suppression therapy received (no acid suppression, histamine2-receptor antagonist [H2RA] therapy, daily proton pump inhibitor [PPI], and PPI more frequently than daily).

Results  As the level of acid suppression increased, the risk of nosocomial C difficile infection increased, from 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21%-0.31%) in patients not receiving acid suppressive therapy to 0.6% (95% CI, 0.49%-0.79%) in those receiving H2RA therapy, to 0.9% (95% CI, 0.80%-0.98%) in those receiving daily PPI treatment, and to 1.4% (1.15%-1.71%) in those receiving more frequent PPI therapy. After adjustment for comorbid conditions, age, antibiotics, and propensity score–based likelihood of receipt of acid-suppression therapy, the association persisted, increasing from an odds ratio of 1 (no acid suppression [reference]) to 1.53 (95% CI, 1.12-2.10) (H2RA), to 1.74 (95% CI, 1.39-2.18) (daily PPI), and to 2.36 (95% CI, 1.79-3.11) (more frequent PPI). Similar estimates were found with a matched cohort analysis and with nested case-control techniques.

Conclusions  Increasing levels of pharmacologic acid suppression are associated with increased risks of nosocomial C difficile infection. This evidence of a dose-response effect provides further support for the potentially causal nature of iatrogenic acid suppression in the development of nosocomial C difficile infection.

  R Sofat , A. D Hingorani , L Smeeth , S. E Humphries , P. J Talmud , J Cooper , T Shah , M. S Sandhu , S. L Ricketts , S. M Boekholdt , N Wareham , K. T Khaw , M Kumari , M Kivimaki , M Marmot , F. W Asselbergs , P van der Harst , R. P.F Dullaart , G Navis , D. J van Veldhuisen , W. H Van Gilst , J. F Thompson , P McCaskie , L. J Palmer , M Arca , F Quagliarini , C Gaudio , F Cambien , V Nicaud , O Poirer , V Gudnason , A Isaacs , J. C.M Witteman , C. M van Duijn , M Pencina , R. S Vasan , R. B D'Agostino , J Ordovas , T. Y Li , S Kakko , H Kauma , M. J Savolainen , Y. A Kesaniemi , A Sandhofer , B Paulweber , J. V Sorli , A Goto , S Yokoyama , K Okumura , B. D Horne , C Packard , D Freeman , I Ford , N Sattar , V McCormack , D. A Lawlor , S Ebrahim , G. D Smith , J. J.P Kastelein , J Deanfield and J. P. Casas
 

Background— Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but torcetrapib, the first-in-class inhibitor tested in a large outcome trial, caused an unexpected blood pressure elevation and increased cardiovascular events. Whether the hypertensive effect resulted from CETP inhibition or an off-target action of torcetrapib has been debated. We hypothesized that common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CETP gene could help distinguish mechanism-based from off-target actions of CETP inhibitors to inform on the validity of CETP as a therapeutic target.

Methods and Results— We compared the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on lipid fractions, blood pressure, and electrolytes in up to 67 687 individuals from genetic studies and 17 911 from randomized trials. CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment reduced CETP activity and had a directionally concordant effect on 8 lipid and lipoprotein traits (total, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol; HDL2; HDL3; apolipoproteins A-I and B; and triglycerides), with the genetic effect on HDL cholesterol (0.13 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11 to 0.14 mmol/L) being consistent with that expected of a 10-mg dose of torcetrapib (0.13 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.15). In trials, 60 mg of torcetrapib elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4.47 mm Hg (95% CI 4.10 to 4.84 mm Hg) and 2.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84 to 2.31 mm Hg), respectively. However, the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms on systolic blood pressure (0.16 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.28 to 0.60 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (–0.04 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.36 to 0.28 mm Hg) was null and significantly different from that expected of 10 mg of torcetrapib.

Conclusions— Discordance in the effects of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on blood pressure despite the concordant effects on lipids indicates the hypertensive action of torcetrapib is unlikely to be due to CETP inhibition or shared by chemically dissimilar CETP inhibitors. Genetic studies could find a place in drug-development programs as a new source of randomized evidence for drug-target validation in humans.

 
 
 
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