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Articles by M Maccarana
Total Records ( 2 ) for M Maccarana
  B Pacheco , M Maccarana and A. Malmstrom
 

Chondroitin/dermatan sulfate is a highly complex linear polysaccharide ubiquitously found in the extracellular matrix and at the cell surface. Several of its functions, such as binding to growth factors, are mediated by domains composed of alternating iduronic acid and 4-O-sulfated N-acetylgalactosamine residues, named 4-O-sulfated iduronic acid blocks. These domains are generated by the action of two DS-epimerases, which convert d-glucuronic acid into its epimer l-iduronic acid, in close connection with 4-O-sulfation. In this study, dermatan sulfate structure was evaluated after downregulating or increasing dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 (D4ST-1) expression. siRNA-mediated downregulation of D4ST-1 in primary human lung fibroblasts led to a drastic specific reduction of iduronic acid blocks. No change of epimerase activity was found, indicating that the influence of D4ST-1 on epimerization is not due to an altered expression level of the DS-epimerases. Analysis of the dermatan sulfate chains showed that D4ST-1 is essential for the biosynthesis of the disulfated structure iduronic acid-2-O-sulfate-N-acetylgalactosamine-4-O-sulfate, thus confirmed to be strictly connected with the iduronic acid blocks. Also the biologically important residue hexuronic acid-N-acetylgalactosamine-4,6-O-disulfate considerably decreased after D4ST-1 downregulation. In conclusion, D4ST-1 is a key enzyme and is indispensable in the formation of important functional domains in dermatan sulfate and cannot be compensated by other 4-O-sulfotransferases.

  J Jia , M Maccarana , X Zhang , M Bespalov , U Lindahl and J. P. Li
 

HSEPI (glucuronyl C5-epimerase) catalyzes the conversion of d-glucuronic acid to l-iduronic acid in heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis. Disruption of the Hsepi gene in mice yielded a lethal phenotype with selective organ defects but had remarkably little effect on other organ systems. We have approached the underlying mechanisms by examining the course and effects of FGF2 signaling in a mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell line derived from the Hsepi/ mouse. The HS produced by these cells is devoid of l-iduronic acid residues but shows up-regulated N- and 6-O-sulfation compared with wild type (WT) MEF HS. In medium fortified with 10% fetal calf serum, the Hsepi/ MEFs proliferated and migrated similarly to WT cells. Under starvation conditions, both cell types showed attenuated proliferation and migration that could be restored by the addition of FGF2 to WT cells, whereas Hsepi/ cells were resistant. Moreover, ERK phosphorylation following FGF2 stimulation was delayed in Hsepi/ compared with WT cells. Assessment of HS-growth factor interaction by nitrocellulose filter trapping revealed a strikingly aberrant binding property of FGF2 and glia-derived neurotropic factor to Hsepi/ but not to WT HS. glia-derived neurotropic factor has a key role in kidney development, defective in Hsepi/ mice. By contrast, Hsepi/ and WT HS interacted similarly and in conventional mode with FGF10. These findings correlate defective function of growth factors with their mode of HS interaction and may help explain the partly modest organ phenotypes observed after genetic ablation of selected enzymes in HS biosynthesis.

 
 
 
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