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Articles by M Kivimaki
Total Records ( 4 ) for M Kivimaki
  R Sofat , A. D Hingorani , L Smeeth , S. E Humphries , P. J Talmud , J Cooper , T Shah , M. S Sandhu , S. L Ricketts , S. M Boekholdt , N Wareham , K. T Khaw , M Kumari , M Kivimaki , M Marmot , F. W Asselbergs , P van der Harst , R. P.F Dullaart , G Navis , D. J van Veldhuisen , W. H Van Gilst , J. F Thompson , P McCaskie , L. J Palmer , M Arca , F Quagliarini , C Gaudio , F Cambien , V Nicaud , O Poirer , V Gudnason , A Isaacs , J. C.M Witteman , C. M van Duijn , M Pencina , R. S Vasan , R. B D'Agostino , J Ordovas , T. Y Li , S Kakko , H Kauma , M. J Savolainen , Y. A Kesaniemi , A Sandhofer , B Paulweber , J. V Sorli , A Goto , S Yokoyama , K Okumura , B. D Horne , C Packard , D Freeman , I Ford , N Sattar , V McCormack , D. A Lawlor , S Ebrahim , G. D Smith , J. J.P Kastelein , J Deanfield and J. P. Casas
 

Background— Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but torcetrapib, the first-in-class inhibitor tested in a large outcome trial, caused an unexpected blood pressure elevation and increased cardiovascular events. Whether the hypertensive effect resulted from CETP inhibition or an off-target action of torcetrapib has been debated. We hypothesized that common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CETP gene could help distinguish mechanism-based from off-target actions of CETP inhibitors to inform on the validity of CETP as a therapeutic target.

Methods and Results— We compared the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on lipid fractions, blood pressure, and electrolytes in up to 67 687 individuals from genetic studies and 17 911 from randomized trials. CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment reduced CETP activity and had a directionally concordant effect on 8 lipid and lipoprotein traits (total, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol; HDL2; HDL3; apolipoproteins A-I and B; and triglycerides), with the genetic effect on HDL cholesterol (0.13 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11 to 0.14 mmol/L) being consistent with that expected of a 10-mg dose of torcetrapib (0.13 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.15). In trials, 60 mg of torcetrapib elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4.47 mm Hg (95% CI 4.10 to 4.84 mm Hg) and 2.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84 to 2.31 mm Hg), respectively. However, the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms on systolic blood pressure (0.16 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.28 to 0.60 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (–0.04 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.36 to 0.28 mm Hg) was null and significantly different from that expected of 10 mg of torcetrapib.

Conclusions— Discordance in the effects of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on blood pressure despite the concordant effects on lipids indicates the hypertensive action of torcetrapib is unlikely to be due to CETP inhibition or shared by chemically dissimilar CETP inhibitors. Genetic studies could find a place in drug-development programs as a new source of randomized evidence for drug-target validation in humans.

  C. G Magnussen , J Koskinen , W Chen , R Thomson , M. D Schmidt , S. R Srinivasan , M Kivimaki , N Mattsson , M Kahonen , T Laitinen , L Taittonen , T Ronnemaa , J. S. A Viikari , G. S Berenson , M Juonala and O. T. Raitakari
  Background—

The clinical utility of identifying pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) is controversial. This study sought to determine the status of pediatric MetS as a risk factor for adult subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid intima-media thickness [cIMT]) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and compare and contrast this prediction with its individual components.

Methods and Results—

Using data from the population-based, prospective, observational Bogalusa Heart and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns studies, we examined the utility of 4 categorical definitions of youth MetS and their components in predicting adult high cIMT and T2DM among 1781 participants aged 9 to 18 years at baseline (1984 to 1988) who were then examined 14 to 27 years later (2001–2007) when aged 24 to 41 years. Youth with MetS were at 2 to 3 times the risk of having high cIMT and T2DM as adults compared with those free of MetS at youth. Risk estimates with the use of high body mass index were similar to those of MetS phenotypes in predicting adult outcomes. Comparisons of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and net reclassification index suggested that prediction of adult MetS, high cIMT, and T2DM in adulthood with the use of youth MetS was either equivalent or inferior to classification based on high body mass index or overweight and obesity.

Conclusions—

Youth with MetS are at increased risk of meaningful adult outcomes; however, the simplicity of screening for high BMI or overweight and obesity in the pediatric setting offers a simpler, equally accurate alternative to identifying youth at risk of developing adult MetS, high cIMT, or T2DM.

  M Kivimaki , G. D Batty , A Singh Manoux , H Nabi , S Sabia , A. G Tabak , T. N Akbaraly , J Vahtera , M. G Marmot and M. Jokela
 

Background

Prospective data on the association between common mental disorders and obesity are scarce, and the impact of ageing on this association is poorly understood.

Aims

To examine the association between common mental disorders and obesity (body mass index >=30 kg/m2) across the adult life course.

Method

The participants, 6820 men and 3346 women, aged 35–55 were screened four times during a 19-year follow-up (the Whitehall II study). Each screening included measurements of mental disorders (the General Health Questionnaire), weight and height.

Results

The excess risk of obesity in the presence of mental disorders increased with age (P = 0.004). The estimated proportion of people who were obese was 5.7% at age 40 both in the presence and absence of mental disorders, but the corresponding figures were 34.6% and 27.1% at age 70. The excess risk did not vary by gender or according to ethnic group or socioeconomic position.

Conclusions

The association between common mental disorders and obesity becomes stronger at older ages.

  T. N Akbaraly , E. J Brunner , J. E Ferrie , M. G Marmot , M Kivimaki and A. Singh Manoux
 

Background

Studies of diet and depression have focused primarily on individual nutrients.

Aims

To examine the association between dietary patterns and depression using an overall diet approach.

Method

Analyses were carried on data from 3486 participants (26.2% women, mean age 55.6 years) from the Whitehall II prospective cohort, in which two dietary patterns were identified: ‘whole food’ (heavily loaded by vegetables, fruits and fish) and ‘processed food’ (heavily loaded by sweetened desserts, fried food, processed meat, refined grains and high-fat dairy products). Self-reported depression was assessed 5 years later using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression (CES–D) scale.

Results

After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest tertile of the whole food pattern had lower odds of CES–D depression (OR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.56–0.99) than those in the lowest tertile. In contrast, high consumption of processed food was associated with an increased odds of CES–D depression (OR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.11–2.23).

Conclusions

In middle-aged participants, a processed food dietary pattern is a risk factor for CES–D depression 5 years later, whereas a whole food pattern is protective.

 
 
 
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