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Articles by M Khan
Total Records ( 2 ) for M Khan
  L Lindahl , A Bommankanti , X Li , L Hayden , A Jones , M Khan , T Oni and J. M. Zengel

RNase MRP is a nucleolar RNA–protein enzyme that participates in the processing of rRNA during ribosome biogenesis. Previous experiments suggested that RNase MRP makes a nonessential cleavage in the first internal transcribed spacer. Here we report experiments with new temperature-sensitive RNase MRP mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that show that the abundance of all early intermediates in the processing pathway is severely reduced upon inactivation of RNase MRP. Transcription of rRNA continues unabated as determined by RNA polymerase run-on transcription, but the precursor rRNA transcript does not accumulate, and appears to be unstable. Taken together, these observations suggest that inactivation of RNase MRP blocks cleavage at sites A0, A1, A2, and A3, which in turn, prevents precursor rRNA from entering the canonical processing pathway (35S > 20S + 27S > 18S + 25S + 5.8S rRNA). Nevertheless, at least some cleavage at the processing site in the second internal transcribed spacer takes place to form an unusual 24S intermediate, suggesting that cleavage at C2 is not blocked. Furthermore, the long form of 5.8S rRNA is made in the absence of RNase MRP activity, but only in the presence of Xrn1p (exonuclease 1), an enzyme not required for the canonical pathway. We conclude that RNase MRP is a key enzyme for initiating the canonical processing of precursor rRNA transcripts, but alternative pathway(s) might provide a backup for production of small amounts of rRNA.

  S. M Chacko , S Ahmed , K Selvendiran , M. L Kuppusamy , M Khan and P. Kuppusamy

Stem cells transplanted to the ischemic myocardium usually encounter massive cell death within a few days of therapy. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) is currently employed as a strategy to prepare stem cells for increased survival and engraftment in the heart. However, HPC of stem cells has provided varying results, supposedly due to the differences in the oxygen concentration, duration of exposure, and passage conditions. In the present study, we determined the effect of HPC on rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposed to 0.5% oxygen concentration for 24, 48, or 72 h. We evaluated the expression of prosurvival, proangiogenic, and functional markers such as hypoxia-inducible factor-1, VEGF, phosphorylated Akt, survivin, p21, cytochrome c, caspase-3, caspase-7, CXCR4, and c-Met. MSCs exposed to 24-h hypoxia showed reduced apoptosis on being subjected to severe hypoxic conditions. They also had significantly higher levels of prosurvival, proangiogenic, and prodifferentiation proteins when compared with longer exposure (72 h). Cells taken directly from the cryopreserved state did not respond effectively to the 24-h HPC as those that were cultured under normoxia before HPC. Cells cultured under normoxia before HPC showed decreased apoptosis, enhanced expression of connexin-43, cardiac myosin heavy chain, and CD31. The preconditioned cells were able to differentiate into the cardiovascular lineage. The results suggest that MSCs cultured under normoxia before 24-h HPC are in a state of optimal expression of prosurvival, proangiogenic, and functional proteins that may increase the survival and engraftment in the infarct heart. These results could provide further insights into optimal preparation of MSCs which would greatly influence the effectiveness of cell therapy in vivo.

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