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Articles by M Ishida
Total Records ( 2 ) for M Ishida
  M Ishida , S Mikami , E Kikuchi , T Kosaka , A Miyajima , K Nakagawa , M Mukai , Y Okada and M. Oya

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the activation of the AhR pathway are involved in xenobiotic-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Although xenobiotics, such as cigarette smoke, contribute to the development of urothelial carcinoma (UC), the relationship between AhR and UC is unclear. In the present study, we investigated AhR expression in 209 patients with upper urinary tract UC. The nuclear expression of AhR was significantly associated with histological grade, pathological T stage, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that nuclear AhR expression was a significant and independent predictor for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 2.469, P = 0.013). To determine whether the AhR pathway can be activated in the T24 UC cell line, we examined the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are target genes of the AhR pathway, following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ligand of AhR. TCDD treatment upregulated the expression levels of AhR, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. TCDD enhanced T24 cell invasion associated with the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, targeting AhR messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in T24 cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) downregulated the mRNA expression of AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9; furthermore, the cells transfected with siRNA for AhR showed decreased invasion activity in comparison with the cells transfected with a non-targeting siRNA. Our results therefore suggest that AhR plays a role in the invasiveness of UC cells and can serve as a marker for the prognosis of upper urinary tract UC.

  T Endo , K Kano , R Motoki , K Hama , S Okudaira , M Ishida , H Ogiso , M Tanaka , N Matsuki , R Taguchi , M Kanai , M Shibasaki , H Arai and J. Aoki

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a simple phospholipid but has numerous biological effects through a series of G-protein-coupled receptors specific to LPA. In general, LPA is short-lived when applied in vivo, which hinders most pharmacological experiments. In our continuing study to identify stable LPA analogues capable of in vivo applications, we identified here lysophosphatidylmethanol (LPM) as a stable and pan-LPA receptor agonist. A synthetic LPM activated all five LPA receptors (LPA1–5), and stimulates both cell proliferation and LPA-receptor-dependent cell motility. In addition, LPM showed a hypertensive effect in rodent when applied in vivo. We found that, when fetal calf serum was incubated in the presence of methanol, formation of LPM occurred rapidly, whereas it was completely blocked by depletion of autotaxin (ATX), a plasma enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to LPA. When recombinant ATX was incubated with LPC in the presence of methanol, both LPM and LPA were produced with a ratio of 1:10, showing that ATX has transphosphatidylation activity in addition to its lysophospholipase D activity. Administration of methanol in mice resulted in the formation of several micromoles of LPM in plasma, which is much higher than that of LPA. The present study identified LPM as a novel and stable lysophospholipid mediator with LPA-like activities and ATX as a potential synthetic enzyme for LPM.

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