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Articles by M Hoekstra
Total Records ( 3 ) for M Hoekstra
  M Hoekstra , S. J. A Korporaal , Z Li , Y Zhao , M Van Eck and T. J. C. Van Berkel

Lipoprotein-associated cholesterol has been suggested to make a significant contribution to adrenal steroidogenesis in vivo. To determine whether lipoproteins indeed contribute to optimal adrenal steroidogenesis in mice, in the current study we have determined the effect of relative lipoprotein deficiency on adrenal steroidogenesis in C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Feeding C57BL/6 mice the lipid-lowering drug probucol (0.25% wt/wt) for 2 wk induced a 90% decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels and a 77% reduction in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Neutral lipid stores were depleted upon probucol treatment specifically in the glucocorticoid-producing zona fasciculata of the adrenal, leading to a 44% decreased plasma corticosterone level under basal conditions. Exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a 37% increase in the adrenal uptake of HDL cholesteryl esters. Probucol-treated mice could induce only a relatively minor corticosterone response upon a LPS challenge compared with controls, which coincided with an approximately twofold increased hepatic expression level of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and an 89% higher TNF response in plasma. Furthermore, a compensatory two- to fivefold upregulation of LDL receptor (cholesterol uptake) and HMG-CoA reductase (cholesterol synthesis) expression was noticed in the adrenals of probucol-treated mice. In conclusion, we have shown that lipoprotein deficiency in mice as a result of probucol feeding is associated with decreased adrenal cortex cholesterol levels, a lower basal and stress-induced plasma glucocorticoid level, and an increased susceptibility to LPS-induced inflammation. Therefore, it is suggested that plasma lipoproteins are required for optimal adrenal steroidogenesis and protection against endotoxemia in mice.

  Y Zhao , M Pennings , R. B Hildebrand , D Ye , L Calpe Berdiel , R Out , M Kjerrulf , E Hurt Camejo , A. K Groen , M Hoekstra , W Jessup , G Chimini , T. J. C Van Berkel and M. Van Eck

Macrophages cannot limit the uptake of lipids and rely on cholesterol efflux mechanisms for maintaining cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Important mediators of macrophage cholesterol efflux are ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1), which mediates the efflux of cholesterol to lipid-poor apolipoprotein AI, and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), which promotes efflux to mature high-density lipoprotein.


The aim of the present study was to increase the insight into the putative synergistic roles of ABCA1 and SR-BI in foam cell formation and atherosclerosis.

Methods and Results:

Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr KO) mice were transplanted with bone marrow from ABCA1/SR-BI double knockout mice, the respective single knockouts, or wild-type littermates. Serum cholesterol levels were lower in ABCA1/SR-BI double knockout transplanted animals, as compared to the single knockout and wild-type transplanted animals on Western-type diet. Despite the lower serum cholesterol levels, massive foam cell formation was found in macrophages from spleen and the peritoneal cavity. Interestingly, ABCA1/SR-BI double knockout transplanted animals also showed a major increase in proinflammatory KC (murine interleukin-8) and interleukin-12p40 levels in the circulation. Furthermore, after 10 weeks of Western-type diet feeding, atherosclerotic lesion development in the aortic root was more extensive in the LDLr KO mice reconstituted with ABCA1/SR-BI double knockout bone marrow.


Deletion of ABCA1 and SR-BI in bone marrow–derived cells enhances in vivo macrophage foam cell formation and atherosclerotic lesion development in LDLr KO mice on Western diet, indicating that under high dietary lipid conditions, both macrophage ABCA1 and SR-BI contribute significantly to cholesterol homeostasis in the macrophage in vivo and are essential for reducing the risk for atherosclerosis.

  M Hoekstra , D Ye , R. B Hildebrand , Y Zhao , B Lammers , M Stitzinger , J Kuiper , T. J. C Van Berkel and M. Van Eck

Impaired scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated uptake of HDL-cholesterol esters (HDL-CE) induces adrenal insufficiency in mice. Humans contain an alternative route of HDL-CE clearance, namely through the transfer by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) to apolipoprotein B lipoproteins for subsequent uptake via the LDL receptor. In this study, we determined whether CETP can compensate for loss of adrenal SR-BI. Transgenic expression of human CETP (CETP Tg) in SR-BI knockout (KO) mice increased adrenal HDL-CE clearance from 33–58% of the control value. SR-BI KO/CETP Tg and SR-BI KO mice displayed adrenal hypertrophy due to equally high plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. Adrenal cholesterol levels and plasma corticosterone levels were 38–52% decreased in SR-BI KO mice with and without CETP expression. SR-BI KO/CETP Tg mice also failed to increase their corticosterone level after lipopolysaccharide challenge, leading to an identical >4-fold increased tumor necrosis factor- response compared with controls. These data indicate that uptake of CE via other routes than SR-BI is not sufficient to generate the cholesterol pool needed for optimal adrenal steroidogenesis. In conclusion, we have shown that CETP-mediated transfer of HDL-CE is not able to reverse adrenal insufficiency in SR-BI knockout mice. Thus, SR-BI-mediated uptake of serum cholesterol is essential for optimal adrenal function.

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