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Articles by M Gill
Total Records ( 3 ) for M Gill
  G Donohoe , J Walters , D. W Morris , E. M Quinn , R Judge , N Norton , I Giegling , A. M Hartmann , H. J Moller , P Muglia , H Williams , V Moskvina , R Peel , T O'Donoghue , M. J Owen , M. C O'Donovan , M Gill , D Rujescu and A. Corvin

Context  Human and animal studies have implicated the gene NOS1 in both cognition and schizophrenia susceptibility.

Objective  To investigate whether a potential schizophrenia risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs6490121) identified in a recent genome-wide association study negatively influences cognition in patients with schizophrenia and healthy control subjects.

Design  A comparison of both cases and controls grouped according to NOS1 genotype (GG vs AG vs AA) on selected measures of cognition in 2 independent samples. We tested for association between NOS1 rs6490121 and cognitive functions known to be impaired in schizophrenia (IQ, episodic memory, working memory, and attentional control) in an Irish sample. We then sought to replicate the significant results in a German sample.

Setting  Unrelated patients from general adult psychiatric inpatient and outpatient services and unrelated healthy volunteers from the general population were ascertained.

Participants  Patients with DSM-IV–diagnosed schizophrenia and healthy control subjects from independent samples of Irish (cases, n = 349; controls, n = 230) and German (cases, n = 232; controls, n = 1344) nationality.

Results  A main effect of NOS1 genotype on verbal IQ and working memory was observed in the Irish sample where the homozygous carriers of the schizophrenia risk G allele performed poorly compared with the other genotype groups. These findings were replicated in the German sample, again with the GG genotype carriers performing below other genotype groups. Post hoc analysis of additional IQ measures (full-scale and performance IQ) in the German sample revealed that NOS1 GG carriers underperformed on these measures also.

Conclusions  NOS1 is associated with clinically significant variation in cognition. Whether this is a mechanism by which schizophrenia risk is increased (eg, via an influence on cognitive reserve) is yet to be confirmed.

  M. A Bellgrove , K. A Johnson , E Barry , A Mulligan , Z Hawi , M Gill , I Robertson and C. D. Chambers

Context  A distinct pattern of selective attention deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been difficult to identify. Heterogeneity may reflect differences in underlying genetics.

Objective  To document an objective deficit of selective attention in a large sample of children with and without ADHD using spatial orienting paradigms. By stratifying samples according to the gene dosage of a risk haplotype of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1), we could determine whether genetic factors predict spatial inattention in ADHD.

Design  A case-control design was used.

Setting  Children with ADHD were recruited from clinics or support groups in Ireland. Typically developing children were recruited from schools in and around Dublin, Ireland.

Participants  One hundred fifteen children were recruited (ADHD = 50, control = 65). Groups were matched for age but differed in estimated intelligence.

Intervention  Two versions of a visual spatial orienting task in which attention was directed by valid, neutral, or invalid cues to target locations. Sudden-onset peripheral cues (exogenous) and centrally presented predictive cues (endogenous) were used.

Main Outcome Measures  To isolate an attention deficit in ADHD, groups were first compared using analysis of variance on the spatial orienting tasks. Multiple regression was used to assess the main effect of DAT1 haplotype status (heterozygous vs homozygous) and the interaction of diagnosis and genotype on those variables that discriminated children with and without ADHD.

Results  Children with ADHD displayed deficits in reorienting attention from invalidly cued spatial locations, particularly for targets in the left visual field. DAT1 haplotype status predicted spatial reorienting deficits for left visual field targets (P = .007) but there was also a significant interaction of diagnosis and genotype (P = .02), which revealed the greatest impairment in children with ADHD homozygous for the DAT1 haplotype.

Conclusion  Heterogeneity in selective attention in ADHD can be explained by a replicated genetic risk factor for ADHD, the 10/3 DAT1 haplotype.

  J Kuntsi , A. C Wood , F Rijsdijk , K. A Johnson , P Andreou , B Albrecht , A Arias Vasquez , J. K Buitelaar , G McLoughlin , N. N. J Rommelse , J. A Sergeant , E. J Sonuga Barke , H Uebel , J. J van der Meere , T Banaschewski , M Gill , I Manor , A Miranda , F Mulas , R. D Oades , H Roeyers , A Rothenberger , H. C Steinhausen , S. V Faraone and P. Asherson

Context  Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with widespread cognitive impairments, but it is not known whether the apparent multiple impairments share etiological roots or separate etiological pathways exist. A better understanding of the etiological pathways is important for the development of targeted interventions and for identification of suitable intermediate phenotypes for molecular genetic investigations.

Objectives  To determine, by using a multivariate familial factor analysis approach, whether 1 or more familial factors underlie the slow and variable reaction times, impaired response inhibition, and choice impulsivity associated with ADHD.

Design  An ADHD and control sibling-pair design.

Setting  Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Israel, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.

Participants  A total of 1265 participants, aged 6 to 18 years: 464 probands with ADHD and 456 of their siblings (524 with combined-subtype ADHD), and 345 control participants.

Main Outcome Measures  Performance on a 4-choice reaction time task, a go/no-go inhibition task, and a choice-delay task.

Results  The final model consisted of 2 familial factors. The larger factor, reflecting 85% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 98% to 100% of the familial influences on mean reaction time and reaction time variability. The second, smaller factor, reflecting 13% of the familial variance of ADHD, captured 62% to 82% of the familial influences on commission and omission errors on the go/no-go task. Choice impulsivity was excluded in the final model because of poor fit.

Conclusions  The findings suggest the existence of 2 familial pathways to cognitive impairments in ADHD and indicate promising cognitive targets for future molecular genetic investigations. The familial distinction between the 2 cognitive impairments is consistent with recent theoretical models—a developmental model and an arousal-attention model—of 2 separable underlying processes in ADHD. Future research that tests the familial model within a developmental framework may inform developmentally sensitive interventions.

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