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Articles by M Gallagher
Total Records ( 3 ) for M Gallagher
  T Miyazawa , M Gallagher , G Preti and P. M. Wise

People are often able to reliably detect a mixture of 2 or more odorants, even if they cannot reliably detect the individual mixture components when presented individually. This phenomenon has been called mixture agonism. However, for some mixtures, agonism among mixture components is greater in barely detectable mixtures than in more easily detectable mixtures (level dependence). Most studies that have used rigorous methods have focused on simple, 2-component (binary) mixtures. The current work takes the next logical step to study detection of 3-component (ternary) mixtures. Psychometric functions were measured for 5 unmixed compounds and for 3 ternary mixtures of these compounds (2 of 5, forced-choice method). Experimenters used air dilution olfactometry to precisely control the duration and concentration of stimuli and used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to verify vapor-phase concentrations. For 2 of the 3 mixtures, agonism was approximately additive in general agreement with similar work on binary mixtures. A third mixture was no more detectable than the most detectable component, demonstrating a lack of agonism. None of the 3 mixtures showed evidence of level dependence. Agonism may be common in ternary mixtures, but general rules of mixture interaction have yet to emerge. For now, detection of any mixture must be measured empirically.

  R Chan , R Brooks , M Gallagher , J Erlich , P Snelling , J Chow and M. Suranyi

Background and objectives: Kidney disease–related loss is clinically significant in patients with ESRD and is related to depression and quality of life. The Kidney Disease Loss Scale (KDLS) was recently developed for long-term dialysis patients as a means of studying loss and applying it to clinical practice; however, its validity and usability in the other developmental stages of ESRD—predialysis and early dialysis—remain unknown. This study examined the validity and reliability of the KDLS in the long-term dialysis, early dialysis, and predialysis populations.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Four groups of participants were recruited from four large university teaching hospitals in the Sydney metropolitan area. Participants were long-term dialysis (n = 151), early dialysis (n = 163), and predialysis (n = 111) patients. An additional independent group of dialysis (n = 50) patients were recruited to measure the test–retest reliability. Multisample confirmatory factor analysis and correlational analysis were used.

Results: Results demonstrated good internal consistency and test–retest reliability for KDLS. Multisample confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factor structure of KDLS was invariant across samples and thus supported its construct validity. The convergent and discriminant validities of KDLS were supported by its correlations with scales that measure health-related quality of life, depression, and positive affect in the expected directions and magnitudes. The KDLS was sensitive to the developmental stages of ESRD.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that the concept of loss exists in dialysis patients. The KDLS is a reliable measure of loss in ESRD and valid in the developmental stages of ESRD.

  H. J Lee , M Gallagher and P. C. Holland

The central amygdala nucleus (CeA) plays a critical role in cognitive processes beyond fear conditioning. For example, intact CeA function is essential for enhancing attention to conditioned stimuli (CSs). Furthermore, this enhanced attention depends on the CeA's connections to the nigrostriatal system. In the current study, we examined the role of the CeA's connections to two midbrain dopamine regions, the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), in processing CS information when predictions of reward or nonreward were confirmed or disconfirmed. Initially, two different retrograde tracers were injected into the SNc and the VTA of rats, to label CeA cells. Different groups of rats then received a visual CS either paired or unpaired with food. Finally, Fos induction was assessed after a test session in which rats were exposed to the visual CS alone or paired with food. Colabeling of Fos and the retrograde tracer(s) showed that CeA neurons projecting to the SNc, but not to the VTA, were engaged in processing CS information when the training and testing conditions differed. These results suggest that the CeA–nigral pathway represents prediction error information during appetitive conditioning.

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