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Articles by M Faouzi
Total Records ( 2 ) for M Faouzi
  H Mori , K Inoki , D Opland , H Munzberg , E. C Villanueva , M Faouzi , T Ikenoue , D. J Kwiatkowski , O. A MacDougald , M. G Myers and K. L. Guan

TSC1 is a tumor suppressor that associates with TSC2 to inactivate Rheb, thereby inhibiting signaling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). mTORC1 stimulates cell growth by promoting anabolic cellular processes, such as translation, in response to growth factors and nutrient signals. To test roles for TSC1 and mTORC1 in β-cell function, we utilized Rip2/Cre to generate mice lacking Tsc1 in pancreatic β-cells (Rip-Tsc1cKO mice). Although obesity developed due to hypothalamic Tsc1 excision in older Rip-Tsc1cKO animals, young animals displayed a prominent gain-of-function β-cell phenotype prior to the onset of obesity. The young Rip-Tsc1cKO animals displayed improved glycemic control due to mTOR-mediated enhancement of β-cell size, mass, and insulin production but not determinants of β-cell number (proliferation and apoptosis), consistent with an important anabolic role for mTOR in β-cell function. Furthermore, mTOR mediated these effects in the face of impaired Akt signaling in β-cells. Thus, mTOR promulgates a dominant signal to promote β-cell/islet size and insulin production, and this pathway is crucial for β-cell function and glycemic control.

  N Ansermot , O Albayrak , J Schlapfer , S Crettol , M Croquette Krokar , M Bourquin , J. J Deglon , M Faouzi , N Scherbaum and C. B. Eap

Background  Methadone is administered as a chiral mixture of (R,S)-methadone. The opioid effect is mainly mediated by (R)-methadone, whereas (S)-methadone blocks the human ether-à-go-go–related gene (hERG) voltage-gated potassium channel more potently, which can cause drug-induced long QT syndrome, leading to potentially lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

Methods  To investigate whether substitution of (R,S)-methadone by (R)-methadone could reduce the corrected QT (QTc) interval, (R,S)-methadone was replaced by (R)-methadone (half-dose) in 39 opioid-dependent patients receiving maintenance treatment for 14 days. (R)-methadone was then replaced by the initial dose of (R,S)-methadone for 14 days (n = 29). Trough (R)-methadone and (S)-methadone plasma levels and electrocardiogram measurements were taken.

Results  The Fridericia-corrected QT (QTcF) interval decreased when (R,S)-methadone was replaced by a half-dose of (R)-methadone; the median (interquartile range [IQR]) values were 423 (398-440) milliseconds (ms) and 412 (395-431) ms (P = .06) at days 0 and 14, respectively. Using a univariate mixed-effect linear model, the QTcF value decreased by a mean of –3.9 ms (95% confidence interval [CI], –7.7 to –0.2) per week (P = .04). The QTcF value increased when (R)-methadone was replaced by the initial dose of (R,S)-methadone for 14 days; median (IQR) values were 424 (398-436) ms and 424 (412-443) ms (P = .01) at days 14 and 28, respectively. The univariate model showed that the QTcF value increased by a mean of 4.7 ms (95% CI, 1.3-8.1) per week (P = .006).

Conclusions  Substitution of (R,S)-methadone by (R)-methadone reduces the QTc interval value. A safer cardiac profile of (R)-methadone is in agreement with previous in vitro and pharmacogenetic studies. If the present results are confirmed by larger studies, (R)-methadone should be prescribed instead of (R,S)-methadone to reduce the risk of cardiac toxic effects and sudden death.

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