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Articles by M Chandra
Total Records ( 2 ) for M Chandra
  J. A Kirk , G. A MacGowan , C Evans , S. H Smith , C. M Warren , R Mamidi , M Chandra , A. F.R Stewart , R. J Solaro and S. G. Shroff

Rationale: Protein kinase (PK)C-induced phosphorylation of cardiac troponin (cTn)I has been shown to regulate cardiac contraction.

Objective: Characterize functional effects of increased PKC-induced cTnI phosphorylation and identify underlying mechanisms using a transgenic mouse model (cTnIPKC-P) expressing mutant cTnI (S43E, S45E, T144E).

Methods and Results: Two-dimensional gel analysis showed 7.2±0.5% replacement of endogenous cTnI with the mutant form. Experiments included: mechanical measurements (perfused isolated hearts, isolated papillary muscles, and skinned fiber preparations), biochemical and molecular biological measurements, and a mathematical model–based analysis for integrative interpretation. Compared to wild-type mice, cTnIPKC-P mice exhibited negative inotropy in isolated hearts (14% decrease in peak developed pressure), papillary muscles (53% decrease in maximum developed force), and skinned fibers (14% decrease in maximally activated force, Fmax). Additionally, cTnIPKC-P mice exhibited slowed relaxation in both isolated hearts and intact papillary muscles. The cTnIPKC-P mice showed no differences in calcium sensitivity, cooperativity, steady-state force-MgATPase relationship, calcium transient (amplitude and relaxation), or baseline phosphorylation of other myofilamental proteins. The model-based analysis revealed that experimental observations in cTnIPKC-P mice could be reproduced by 2 simultaneous perturbations: a decrease in the rate of cross-bridge formation and an increase in calcium-independent persistence of the myofilament active state.

Conclusions: A modest increase in PKC-induced cTnI phosphorylation (7%) can significantly alter cardiac muscle contraction: negative inotropy via decreased cross-bridge formation and negative lusitropy via persistence of myofilament active state. Based on our data and data from the literature we speculate that effects of PKC-mediated cTnI phosphorylation are site-specific (S43/S45 versus T144).

  S. J Ford , M Chandra , R Mamidi , W Dong and K. B. Campbell

Motivated by the need for an analytical tool that can be used routinely to analyze data collected from isolated, detergent-skinned cardiac muscle fibers, we developed a mathematical model for representing the force response to step changes in muscle length (i.e., quick stretch and release). Our proposed model is reasonably simple, consisting of only five parameters representing: (1) the rate constant by which length change–induced distortion of elastic elements is dissipated; (2) the stiffness of the muscle fiber; (3) the amplitude of length-mediated recruitment of stiffness elements; (4) the rate constant by which this length-mediated recruitment takes place; and (5) the magnitude of the nonlinear interaction term by which distortion of elastic elements affects the number of recruited stiffness elements. Fitting this model to a family of force recordings representing responses to eight amplitudes of step length change (±2.0% baseline muscle length in 0.5% increments) enabled four things: (1) reproduction of all the identifiable features seen in a family of force responses to both positive and negative length changes; (2) close fitting of all records from the whole family of these responses with very little residual error; (3) estimation of all five model parameters with a great degree of certainty; and (4) importantly, ready discrimination between cardiac muscle fibers with different contractile regulatory proteins but showing only subtly different contractile function. We recommend this mathematical model as an analytic tool for routine use in studies of cardiac muscle fiber contractile function. Such model-based analysis gives novel insight to the contractile behavior of cardiac muscle fibers, and it is useful for characterizing the mechanistic effects that alterations of cardiac contractile proteins have on cardiac contractile function.

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