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Articles by M Blettner
Total Records ( 4 ) for M Blettner
  P. S Wild , C. R Sinning , A Roth , S Wilde , R. B Schnabel , E Lubos , T Zeller , T Keller , K. J Lackner , M Blettner , R. S Vasan , T Munzel and S. Blankenberg

Echocardiography, the dominant imaging modality for quantification of left ventricular metrics, has undergone continuing development in the past few decades. However, given the lack of population-based data, current guidelines are still based on restricted and small data sets analyzed with methods including expert opinion. This work presents empirically derived reference values from a large-scale, epidemiologic study conducted with state-of-the-art imaging technology and methods.

Methods and Results—

The distribution of echocardiographic measurements of the left ventricle was analyzed in a population-based sample of 5000 mid-Europeans from the Gutenberg Heart Study in Germany. The randomly selected, noninstitutionalized sample provides data on apparently healthy individuals, as well as on those with prevalent disease. Standardized echocardiograms were recorded in a comprehensive data set at a single site with centralized training and certification of sonographers. Sex-specific reference limits and categories indicating the grade of deviation from the reference were calculated, and nomograms were created by quantile regression. Detailed information is given on the association between left ventricular geometry and age.


The rapidly evolving echocardiographic technology with persistent improvements in image quality and new measurement conventions require the evaluation of new reference limits for left ventricular metrics. The present investigation formulates reference limits and nomograms from state-of-the-art technology and methods based on a large population-based data set. The distribution of echocardiographic measures of left ventricular geometry presents, in part, nonlinear associations with age, which should be the subject of future investigations.

  G. P Hammer , M Blettner and H. Zeeb

Exposure to cosmic ionising radiation, in addition to other specific occupational risks, is of concern to aircrew members. Epidemiological studies provide an objective way to assess the health of this occupational group. We systematically reviewed the epidemiological literature on health of aircrew members since 1990, focusing on cancer as the endpoint of interest. Sixty-five relevant publications were identified and reviewed. Whereas overall cancer incidence and mortality was generally lower than in the comparison population, consistently elevated risks were reported for breast cancer incidence in female aircrew members and for melanoma in both male and female aircrew members. Brain cancer was increased in some studies among pilots. Occasionally trends of increasing cancer mortality or incidence with increasing estimated radiation dose were reported. Ionising radiation is considered to contribute little if at all to the elevated risks for cancers among aircrew, whereas excess ultraviolet radiation is a probable cause of the increased melanoma risk.

  C Bornkessel , M Blettner , J Breckenkamp and G. Berg Beckhoff

In the framework of an epidemiological study, dosemeters were used for the assessment of radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure. To check the correct dosemeter's performance in terms of consistency of recorded field values over the entire study period, a quality control strategy was developed. In this paper, the concept of quality control and its results is described. From the 20 dosemeters used, 19 were very stable and reproducible, with deviations of a maximum of ±1 dB compared with their initial state. One device was found to be faulty and its measurement data had to be excluded from the analysis. As a result of continuous quality control procedures, the confidence in the measurements obtained during the field work was strengthened significantly.

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