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Articles by Louis K. Prom
Total Records ( 6 ) for Louis K. Prom
  Louis K. Prom
  The effect in vitro of washed and crushed anther/pollen and stigma extracts from six sorghum lines with different levels of ergot susceptibility on ergot conidial germination was determined. Conidia plated on water agar amended with either anther/pollen or stigma extracts generally stimulated higher rates of conidia germination than conidia plated on water agar alone. However, conidia germinations were suppressed on water agar plates amended with washed anther/pollen extracts from Novartis KS310, washed stigma extracts from NC+7W97 and crushed stigma extracts from NC+8R18. Compared to the other plates with stigma extracts, plates containing extracts from male-sterile line, ATx623 stimulated up to 227% higher conidia germination over the control plates. Overall, plates amended with anther/pollen extracts had significantly higher rates of germinated conidia than those containing stigma extracts. Overall, anther/pollen and stigma extracts tended to stimulate ergot conidia germination. However, components in the anther/pollen or stigma extracts from some of the sorghum lines exhibited the capacity to suppress spore germination. The critical factors from these floral components could be identified and used to minimize the impact of the disease.
  John E. Erpelding and Louis K. Prom
  Plant germplasm collections have been established to preserve genetic variation for utilization in crop improvement programs. Breeding for host plant resistant provides an economical approach to controlling diseases and stabilizing crop production but pathogen populations are variable and evolving; therefore, the identification of new sources of resistance are essential. The Mozambique sorghum collection maintained by the US National Plant Germplasm System in Griffin, Georgia was inoculated with Colletotrichum sublineolum and evaluated for anthracnose resistance in 2004 during the dry and wet growing seasons in Puerto Rico. Twelve of the 22 sorghum accessions showed a resistant response in both seasons. Four resistant accessions were evaluated in an anthracnose disease nursery in Georgia and found to be resistant, suggesting possible host plant resistance to different pathotypes of the disease. A susceptible disease response was observed for four accessions during both seasons. Six accessions varied in disease response within and between experiments suggesting environmental conditions influenced infection response. The anthracnose resistant germplasm identified from the Mozambique germplasm collection could be a valuable source of disease resistance for sorghum improvement programs.
  John E. Erpelding and Louis K. Prom
  Seed mycoflora, kernel weight and seed germination were evaluated for 20 sorghum germplasm lines naturally infected with grain mold during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons in Isabela, Puerto Rico. Mycoflora analysis of the kernels revealed Fusarium semitectum as the most frequently recovered fungal species. Fusarium verticillioides, F. thapsinum, other Fusarium species, Curvularia lunata, Bipolaris spp., Alternaria spp., Colletotrichum graminicola and several unknown fungal species were also isolated from mold infected grain. Bipolaris spp., Alternaria spp. and C. graminicola were isolated at the lowest frequencies from infected grain. Variation was observed in the frequency of fungal species isolated between years and between germplasm lines. Seed germination was positively correlated with kernel weight and negatively correlated with the incidence of F. semitectum, C. lunata and Bipolaris spp. Non-significant negative associations between germination with Fusarium spp. and between kernel weight with F. semitectum, F. thapsinum and C. lunata were also observed. Significant negative associations occurred between the incidence of F. semitectum with the frequency of C. lunata and F. thapsinum. The incidence of grain mold did not reduce seed germination for several sorghum lines, suggesting potential sources of tolerance for sorghum improvement.
  Thomas Isakeit , Louis K. Prom , Michael Wheeler , Lorraine S. Puckhaber and Jinggao Liu
  The objective of this study was to determine the mycotoxigenic potential of 12 Fusarium isolates (10 species), including six isolates (4 species) from sorghum. The species were: F. thapsinum, F. semitectum, F. proliferatum and F. chlamydosporum isolated from molded sorghum seed; F. poae, F. graminearum and F. sporotrichioides from barley seed with Fusarium head blight; F. acuminatum from wheat seed; F. verticillioides from infected corn seed; and F. nygamai isolated from soil. Fumonisin and zearalenone concentrations were measured following incubation on autoclaved sorghum seed for 21 days at 25°C, while fusaric acid was measured in mycelia harvested from Czapek Dox broth cultures. F. thapsinum (SC8 and CS121) and F. semitectum (SC7) produced fusaric acid only (4.59-64.13 mg g-1). F. graminearum (KB172) and F. semitectum (CS152) produced zearalenone only (73.4 and 799.3 μg g-1, respectively). F. proliferatum (CS183), F. verticillioides (TX02) and F. nygamai produced both fumonisin (1.92-6.05 μg g-1) and fusaric acid (39.4-234.17 mg g-1). F. poae (KB652), F. acuminatum (Ark), F. chlamydosporum (CS102) and F. sporotrichioides (KB662) did not produce any of these three mycotoxins. Five of the six Fusarium isolates (three species) isolated from sorghum had mycotoxigenic potential. Fusarium spp. naturally occurring on sorghum in the field have the potential to contribute to mycotoxin contamination, either singly or in combination.
  Louis K. Prom , Hugo Cuevas , Thomas Isakeit and Robert Droleskey
  Foliar phase of anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum is the most important leaf disease of sorghum. Due to the hyper-variable nature of the fungus, continuous evaluation of sorghum germplasm to identify new sources of resistance is imperative. Field and greenhouse evaluations for anthracnose resistance, especially with large numbers of sorghum lines/accessions can be expensive, time consuming and require large spaces and labor. In this study, 16 sorghum lines were evaluated by putting a drop of the mixture of C. sublineolum isolates suspension on each side of the midrib of adaxial excised leaves plated on half-strength potato dextrose agar medium and concurrently as whole plants inoculated with a mixture of C. sublineolum isolates-colonized grain and conidial suspension in the greenhouse. Each line exhibited the same reaction when challenged with C. sublineolum either using the excised leaf assay or screened in the greenhouse, indicating that the excised leaf assay is as effective in identifying susceptibility or resistance to the anthracnose pathogen. In both screening methods, SC748 was the only resistant line. The excised leaf assay was completed in 4 days while the greenhouse evaluation was arrested 44 days post-inoculation. Thus, the excised leaf method could offer several advantages in screening sorghum for anthracnose resistance such as reducing the time for conducting the experiment, labor, space and increasing the number of isolates that can be tested within a short period.
  Louis K. Prom , Ghada Radwan , Ramasamy Perumal , Hugo Cuevas , Seriba O. Katile , Thomas Isakeit and Clint Magill
  Background and Objective: Globally, grain mold is a major hurdle affecting sorghum productivity and quality. This disease is caused by complex fungal pathogens, among them Fusarium thapsinum and Curvularia lunata are the major fungi prevalent in many sorghum growing regions. This study examined the effect of inoculating a mixture of F. thapsinum and C. lunata on 60 sorghum converted lines with five adapted inbred lines as checks. Materials and Methods: Sorghum lines and checks were evaluated in field trials at the Texas AgriLife Research Station. Plants were inoculated with a mixture of F. thapsinum and C. lunata at 50% bloom. Results: The overall result showed that SC 725 (PI 534101), SC 218 (PI 534127), SC 691 (PI 534050), SC 91 (PI 534145) and Sureno exhibited grain mold severity of 2.3 or less. This level of grain mold infection was lower than the scores exhibited by the two resistant checks RTx 2911 (2.8) and SC 719-11E (2.5). Significant negative correlation (r = -0.385, p = 0.002) between grain mold and germination indicated the impact of these two fungi infection on germination rates. The significant negative correlation detected between germination and daily maximum temperature during the evaluation period shows planting of sorghum cultivars/hybrids that mature during periods of dry moderate weather will avoid problem of grain mold infection. Conclusion: The identified four converted lines for grain mold resistance in this study is recommended to use in breeding program to introgress grain mold resistance genes into other adapted sorghum inbred lines to increase the yield and seed quality traits.
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