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Articles by Liu Qiang
Total Records ( 3 ) for Liu Qiang
  Liu Qiang , Yang Xiang-Jie and Liu Zhi-Ling
  The dendrite growth of binary alloy Al-Si under the forced convection was simulated by the phase field model coupled with the solute field and flow field. The influences of the forced convection on the morphology of the dendrite growth, the distribution, diffusion layer and micro-segregation of the solute, etc. were studied. The results show that the morphology of the dendrite growth, the distribution, diffusion layer and micro-segregation of the solute were significantly changed under forced convection. With increasing of the convection speed, the growth of the dendrite is asymmetric. The upstream dendrite growth rate is greater than that of the downstream. The secondary dendrite at upstream was more developed and the dendrite in normal direction was bias more serious to the upstream. In the upstream, the concentration gradient at dendrite tip frontier increases and the thickness of the solute diffusion layer decreases. On the contrary, the concentration gradient decreases in the downstream and the thickness of the solute diffusion layer increases. Furthermore, micro segregation of the dendrite also becomes more serious caused by the effect of convection. The simulation results are consistent with solidification theory.
  Liu Ke-Hui , Fang Yun-Ting , Yu Fang-Ming , Liu Qiang , Li Fu-Rong and Peng Shao-Lin
  Long-term changes in soil pH, the current status of soil acidification, and the response of bulk soil and soil water pH to experimental nitrogen addition under three subtropical forests were investigated in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve of subtropical China. The results showed that the mineral soil pH at 0-20 cm depth declined significantly from 4.60-4.75 in 1980s to 3.84-4.02 in 2005. Nitrogen addition resulted in the decrease of pH in both bulk soil and soil water collected at 20-cm depth. The rapid decline of soil pH was attributed to long-term high atmospheric acid deposition (nitrogen and sulphur) therein. The forest at earlier succession stage with originally higher soil pH appeared to be more vulnerable to acid deposition than that at later succession stage with originally low soil pH.
  LIU Qiang , YANG Xiao-jun , ZHU Jian-guo , ZHAO Jian-lin and YU Hong-zhong
  From October 2004 to May 2005, flock size and composition of wintering black-necked cranes (Grus nigricollis) were studied using spot scanning technique at Napahai Nature Reserve in Yunnan province. At night, the mean wintering population size was 67.9 (16-157, n=17). Composed by common crane (Grus grus) or not, roost cranes were divided into sing-species flock and mixed-species flock. The numbers of crane in sing-species flock were 65.3% of total black-necked cranes. In the day, feeding flocks were classified into three types: family group comprised of breeding pair and their offspring ranging between two to four; sub-adult flock composed mainly by sub-adults ranging between three to 65 with an average size of 16.1(n=1017); special flock composed by single cranes. Black-necked crane flocks were affected by season, temperature, breeding status, food abundance and availability, and their sizes changed significantly in daytime or between different months (P=0.000<0.05). After family breakup happened in late March, Juveniles were drove away by their parents and then they got together to join the sub-adult flocks.
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