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Articles by Ling Shen
Total Records ( 2 ) for Ling Shen
  Dan Huang , Yun Shen , Liyou Qiu , Crystal Y. Chen , Ling Shen , Jim Estep , Robert Hunt , Daphne Vasconcelos , George Du , Pyone Aye , Andrew A. Lackner , Michelle H. Larsen , William R. Jacobs Jr. , Barton F. Haynes , Norman L. Letvin and Zheng W. Chen
  Little is known about the immune distribution and localization of antigen-specific T cells in mucosal interfaces of tissues/organs during infection of humans. In this study, we made use of a macaque model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to assess phosphoantigen-specific Vγ2Vδ2 T cells regarding their tissue distribution, anatomical localization, and correlation with the presence or absence of tuberculosis (TB) lesions in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs/tissues in the progression of severe pulmonary TB. Progression of pulmonary M. tuberculosis infection generated diverse distribution patterns of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells, with remarkable accumulation of these cells in lungs, bronchial lymph nodes, spleens, and remote nonlymphoid organs but not in blood. Increased numbers of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in tissues were associated with M. tuberculosis infection but were independent of the severity of TB lesions. In lungs with apparent TB lesions, Vγ2Vδ2 T cells were present within TB granulomas. In extrathoracic organs, Vγ2Vδ2 T cells were localized in the interstitial compartment of nonlymphoid tissues, and the interstitial localization was present despite the absence of detectable TB lesions. Finally, Vγ2Vδ2 T cells accumulated in tissues appeared to possess cytokine production function, since granzyme B was detectable in the γδ T cells present within granulomas. Thus, clonally expanded Vγ2Vδ2 T cells appeared to undergo trans-endothelial migration, interstitial localization, and granuloma infiltration as immune responses to M. tuberculosis infection.
  Ling Shen , Zhuofu Wang and Muye Xu
  Indoor heating and wall insulation systems are vital parts in building energy saving designs. Based on the analysis of impact factors related to the energy saving design of indoor heating and wall insulation systems, this study adapted the variation of room temperature as the performance index of energy saving design. A calculation model of energy saving design was established based on heat balance theory. Using the proposed model, the variation curves of room temperature with time and the sensitivity of room temperature on various technical factors were analysed incorporating different insulating materials, thicknesses of insulation layer as well as different temperature and flow rate of hot water in the boilers. Finally, it is proposed that the design solution of energy saving system should consider and assess the technical, economic and environmental factors from the perspective of project life cycle. Results from the study showed that the simulation of the proposed model was clear and easily adaptable. The proposed model is capable of providing abundant simulated data for design personnel to predict the performance of the design and optimise the parameters. The findings in the study provided theoretical background and routine for the determination of parameters and design for indoor heating and wall insulation systems for developing and designing companies.
 
 
 
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