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Articles by Li Liu
Total Records ( 10 ) for Li Liu
  Bo Tan , Fuzhong Wu , Wanqin Yang , Sheng Yu , Li Liu and Ao Wang
  Little attention has been given to the dynamics of soil C and nutrients during the soil thawing period in subalpine/alpine forests. To understand the ecological linkages between the non–growing and growing seasons, soil C and nutrients were measured in the primary fir (Abies faxoniana) forest, fir and birch (Betula albosinensis) mixed forest and secondary fir forest in the subalpine/alpine regions of western China. Soils were sampled as soil thawing proceeded from 5 March, 15 March, 25 March, 5 April and 15 April to 25 April 2009, based on monitored soil temperatures. Frequencies of temperature fluctuations (below and above 0 °C) during the soil thawing period depended on the altitude. The soil organic layer showed higher contents and stocks of C, N and P compared with the mineral soil layer. Since the soil organic layer was more directly exposed to environmental changes, the variations of soil C and nutrients in the soil organic layer were more apparent than those in the mineral soil layer. The fluctuations of soil C and nutrients varied with the altitude during soil thawing period. Soil C and nutrient concentrations decreased sharply at the beginning of soil thawing, and thereafter increased in the mixed and secondary forest, which were different to the changes in the primary forest. Soil available nutrients, except for NH4+ –N in the primary forest, showed an increasing tendency in the early stage of the thawing period, but soil available N and P decreased in the later stage of the thawing period. The increasing soil temperature had little effect on soil nutrient availability during the thawing period. The results indicated that soil carbon and nutrients were significantly affected by the length of freeze–thaw period, which is beneficial towards understanding the interactions between wintertime and the growing season.
  Jinming Huang , Li Liu , Hongmei Wang , Cuixia Zhang , Zhihua Ju , Changfa Wang and Jifeng Zhong
  Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), a key component of the innate immune system, plays an important role in the initiation of the inflammatory response to foreign pathogens. This study was carried out to investigate the TLR2 gene expression difference in mammary gland tissues of the cows infected with mastitis and healthy cows and to search for variants of the bovine TLR2 gene for further clarifying the relationship between TLR2 gene and mastitis in cattle. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus could significantly increased the LTR2 mRNA abundance (p<0.05). Seven novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5’ upstream of the TLR2 gene in six cattle breeds (Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Chinese indigenous Luxi Yellow cattle, Bohai Black cattle and Chinese Holstein cattle) were identified by the direct sequencing method. Four SNPs are located at the putative promoter region and their variants can alter the transcriptional factor binding sites. Genetic diversity showed that the SNP (4bp deletion) in the promoter was unique and two distinct haplotypes were found in Hereford cattle. Six SNPs in the TLR2 gene exon2 and 3’UTR were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and CRS-PCR methods in 398 Chinese Holstein cattle. Case-control study and associated analysis revealed that the cow with the genotype TT (3.15±0.52) in c.+189T>G has significantly lower (p<0.05) somatic cell score (SCS) than that with genotype TG (4.84±0.21) or GG (5.31±0.27) in Chinese Holstein cattle. In conclusion, haplotype analysis and linkage disequilibrium findings showed that the hapoltype TG of two loci (c.+189T>G and c.+631A>G) in the coding region may be used as a tolerance haplotype for the bovine mastitis.
  Weihua Xu , Gengtian Liang , Luhong Cao , Yang Meng , Xiaoyan Zhao , Li Liu , Qin Fang and Guangbin Sun
  Recent research on the diode laser has improved hemostatic cutting and an optic fiber delivery system. We explored the range and post-operative recovery of diode laser microsurgery. Three groups dogs: Group A, the right ventricular band and the right vocal fold, the area from the anterior commissure to the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage were cauterized. The VHL for Group B, the excision extended down to the lower margin of the thyroid cartilage and back until it reached the arytenoid cartilage. the additional cauterization of the medial surface of the thyroid cartilage and a 5 x 5 mm window on the anterior commissure to a depth of half the thickness of the thyroid cartilage. The Group C began at the anterior commissure it extended to the right along the thyroid cartilage to remove the right ventricular band, vocal fold, thyroarytenoid muscle and cricoarytenoid muscle. After one week, wounds were completely or partially covered by neo-mucosa. Inflammation and edema were apparent. A pseudomembrane developed in Groups B and C with evidence of infection in Group C. After four weeks the glottal closure and resulting voice was best in Group A and worst in Group C. Likewise, dogs in Group C had a moderate level of hoarseness, while dogs in Group A regained nearly normal voices. Collagen proliferation was most prominent in group C with limited scarring in group A. The diode laser allows a wide surgical range. Post-operative recovery was acceptable. the diode laser shows potential in clinical microsurgery.
  Wenxue Ran , Li Liu and Guomin Yang
  Vehicle routing problem is proved as a NP-Hard problem. VRPTW involves the routing of a set of vehicles with limited capacity from a central depot to a set of geographically dispersed customers with known demands and pre-defined time windows. In this study, a new hybrid algorithm based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is provided to solve the vehicle routing problem with time windows. The proposed algorithm combines the advantages of ACO and GA. Then a mathematical programming formulation for the problem is given. The performance of the model and the heuristic approaches are evaluated using instances generated from a set of classic examples. Results of numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm is an effective tool in solving VRPTW problem.
  Li Liu , Zhengrong Yuan , Cui Chen , Limin Zhang , Xiaojie Chen , Xidong Liu , Xue Gao , Junya Li , Huijiang Gao , Lupei Zhang and Shangzhong Xu
  To study the inflammatory response of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) to actue phases of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) mastitis in dairy cows using gene expression data, the mRNA expression levels of six genes (Iinterleukin (IL)-8, Differentiation (CD) 14, Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Receptor (M-CSFR), Toll-Like Receptor 2 (TLR2), Chemokine Receptor 2 (CCR2) and CX3C Chemokine Receptor 1 (CX3CR1) in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) in infected cows (n = 3) with S. aureus relative to uninfected controls (n = 3) were measured at 0 day before inoculation and 1-3 days post inoculation (dpi) by the real-time quantitative PCR. Results indicated the expression of IL-8, CD14 and CCR2 gene were exhibited significantly (p<0.05) up-regulated within 2 dpi while there was no significant difference in the expression of M-CSFR, TLR2 and CX3CR1 genes at 1-3 dpi. Additionally, concentrations of plasma lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP) and Somatic Cell Counts (SCCs) were evaluated. Together these data reveal that the upregulation of gene expression is probably related to the recruitment and activation of PBMCs.
  Wen-Sheng Wang , Li Liu , Qing-Tian Zeng , Xiao-Rong Yang and Neng-Fu Xie
  This study presents an approach to Web information extraction for the question and answering system about prices of Chinese agricultural products. This approach first uses the training corpus to product keyword dictionary and then matches the sample pages to find key information path to format automatic information extraction. The advantage of this approach is effectively to avoid the nonstandard Hyper Text Marked Language (HTML) pages and to obtain high extraction accuracy in specific domain.
  Wenxue Ran , Xinling Shi and Li Liu
  Using hybrid petri net (First Order Hybrid Petri Net) to analyze and solve the cost control problems of process manufacturers and carried out model optimization, the key parameters of the model get a detailed description and definitions and gives the corresponding linear regression method for solving the problem. Finally, the application of a pharmaceutical factory hard capsules process as example, the real-time control of the cost breakdown into the energy costs and the cost of materials, modeling and optimized.
  Liangtong Li , Xiangzi Li , Zhe Zhang , Li Liu , Yujuan Zhou and Fulin Liu
  Cardiovascular disease accounts for one-third of all deaths, with ischemic heart disease as the main cause of death. Under pathological conditions, ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) often occurs in tissues. Ischemic injury is mainly caused by anaerobic cell death and reperfusion which results in a wide range of inflammatory responses. These responses are able to increase tissue damage and even damage to the whole body. IRI can also aggravate the original cardiovascular disease during the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is particularly important to understand the mechanism of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) for clinical treatment and application. At the same time, it is necessary to find a safe, reliable and feasible method for treating MIRI to reduce the incidence of complications and mortality as well as improve the prognosis and quality of life of patients. As a selective antioxidant, hydrogen can neutralize excessive free radicals, has certain anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects and it has gradually become a focus and hotspot of preclinical and clinical research. Hydrogen has been shown to have a certain therapeutic effect on MIRI, which can provide a new therapeutic direction for the clinical treatment of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this review, the protective mechanism and clinical application of hydrogen in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is discussed.
  Tong Zhang , Li Liu , Shouchun Li and Geyu Lu
  In/Pd-doped SnO2 is synthesized via a sol–gel method and coated on a silicon substrate with Pt electrodes to fabricate a microstructure sensor. The sensor shows high response to CO with very low cross response to common interference gases at an operating temperature of 140°C. Especially, the sensor can detect CO down to 1 ppm (the response value is about 3), and the response time and recovery time are about 15 and 20 s, respectively. These results make our sensor a good candidate in practical CO sensors.
  Li Liu , Rajani Srikakulam and Donald A. Winkelmann
  Myosin folding and assembly in striated muscle are mediated by the general chaperones Hsc70 and Hsp90 and involve a myosin-specific co-chaperone related to the Caenorhabditis elegans gene unc-45. Two unc-45 genes are found in vertebrates, a general cell isoform, unc45a, and a striated muscle-specific isoform, unc45b. We have investigated the role of both isoforms of mouse Unc45 in myosin folding using an in vitro synthesis and folding assay. A smooth muscle myosin motor domain (MD) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) (MD::GFP) was used as substrate, and folding was measured by native gel electrophoresis and functional assays. In the absence of Unc45, the MD::GFP chimera folds poorly. Addition of either Unc45a or Unc45b dramatically enhances the folding in a reaction that is dependent on Hsp90 ATPase activity. Unc45a is more effective than Unc45b with a higher apparent affinity and greater extent of folding. The Unc45-Hsp90 chaperone complex acts late in the folding pathway and promotes motor domain maturation after release from the ribosome. Unc45a behaves kinetically as an activator of the folding reaction by stimulating the rate of the Hsp90-dependent folding by >20-fold with an apparent Kact of 33 nM. This analysis of vertebrate Unc45 isoforms clearly demonstrates a direct role for Unc45 in Hsp90-mediated myosin motor domain folding and highlights major differences between the isoforms in substrate specificity and mechanism.
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