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Articles by Leonardus B.S. Kardono
Total Records ( 4 ) for Leonardus B.S. Kardono
  Leonardus B.S. Kardono , Isaura P. Tjahja , Nina Artanti and Jeremia Manuel
  β-glucan is a polysaccharide derived from mushrooms’ cell wall mainly used for increase the immune system and it is also used to reduce the blood glucose level. This research was aimed to isolate and characterize crude β-glucan from Tremella fuciformis, as well as assess its bioactivity by doing α-glucosidase inhibition test. Hexane and ethyl acetate were used to remove impurities prior to hot water extraction to get the isolated β-glucan, resulting in 2.58±0.33%. 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and FT-IR were used to confirm the characteristic of crude β-glucan. C-H and CH2 groups were detected within δH 3.5-4.2 ppm, shown by 1H-NMR. Meanwhile anomeric proton that indicated β-glycosidic linkage was shown at 4.8-5.2 ppm which was also confirmed by FT-IR in 1028 cm-1 region. The most abundant spectra shown by 13C-NMR in chemical shift δC 71.58; 71.87; 72.90; 73.08; 73.47; 76.53; followed by δC 60.41; 60.95; indicated CH and CH2. Anomeric carbon that indicated glycosidic carbon was shown at 93.13-102.01 ppm. FT-IR showed the OH group at 3500-3000 cm-1, followed by 1250-1122 cm-1 for -C-O and 1500-1400 cm-1 for C-H absorption. In addition, methyl group which belong to fucose was shown by δH at 1.07 and 1.21 ppm which also conformed by the result of GC-MS showed the crude β-glucan contained glucose, fucose, mannose, melibiose and D-galactose. Antidiabetic activity was measured by performing α-glucosidase inhibitory evaluation. Isolated crude β-glucan was found to have a weak activity on α-glucosidase since at 50 ppm, it has lower inhibitory activity than quercetin.
  Saputera , Djumali Mangunwidjaja , Sapta Raharja , Leonardus B.S. Kardono and Dyah Iswantini
  Identification and taxonomy analysis conducted at Herbarium Bogoriense at Research Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences Bogor. The name of the plant was C. tiglium L. The result of analysis on C. tiglium, ethanol extract as laxative material using the intestinal transit method showed treatment group that received dosage 0.06 mL/30 g b.wt. (72.5%) was significantly different compared to negative control (48.4%) or positive control (50.6%) which showed the weak effect as laxative at the dosage of 0.75 mL/30 g b.wt. It showed that ethanol extract of C. tiglium seed at dosage 0.06 mL/30 g is effective as laxative. The test result of the treatment using dosage 0.06, 0.04, 0.026 and 0.07 mL/28 g of body weight showed the mice population response 100, 60, 40 and 40% consecutively. The Thompson and Weil analysis result showed the ED50 was at 0.027 mL or equal to 639,5 g kg-1 b.wt. The LD50 was at 0.0707 equals with 1674,5 mg kg-1 b.wt. Safety limit is the range of dosage that cause the lethal effect and the dosage that gives the intended effect. The safety limit is represented by the comparison of LD50/ED50. Calculation result that the extract safety limit was LD50/ED50 = 0.0707/0.027 = 2.7.
  Leonardus B.S. Kardono , Muhammad Hanafi , Gatot Sherley , Soleh Kosela and Leslie J. Harrison
  A new xanthone, porxanthone A (1) and one porlanosterol (2) were isolated; and three known xanthones, dulxanthone E (3), dulxanthone F (4), dulxanthone G (5) from G. porrecta, whereas two known xanthones, parvixanthone A (6) and rubraxanthone (7), were isolated from G. parvifolia. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic data analysis. The results of cytotoxicity evaluation showed that (3), (4), (5), (6), (7) were inhibitory to L1210 cells, with IC50 values in the range of 3 to 8 μg mL-1.
  Nina Artanti , Sanro Tachibana and Leonardus B.S. Kardono
  The active α-glucosidase inhibitor compounds in the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 were found to be the unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids). These compounds have potential as antidiabetic agents. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of various media composition on growth (mycelium dry weight) and the fatty acids content (μg mg-1 mycelium DW) of Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. For that purpose, the experiments were set up by varying the carbon and nitrogen sources, metal ions and desaturase and fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the media. Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 grown on potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as control. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were (range from 43.9±2.5 to 88.6±5.2%) at 10 μg mL-1. This activity seemed to correlate with the unsaturated fatty acids content of the samples. Different sugars as carbon source experiment showed that xylose gave the highest growth (938.7±141.6 mg). However, the highest fatty acids content was obtained from fructose medium which containing linoleic acid (38.8±4.9 μg mg-1 DW). Soluble starch gave better growth (672.5±62.3 mg) but very low fatty acids content (2.8±0.1 μg mg-1 DW) was obtained. Yeast extract was the best nitrogen source. Fatty acids production was better as compared to beef extract and soytone. This is the first report of various media compositions on fatty acids content in Colletotrichum sp. TSC13 in relation to its α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
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