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Articles by Lawan Adamu
Total Records ( 7 ) for Lawan Adamu
  Lawan Adamu , Noraniza Mohd Adzahan , Rasedee Abdullah and Bashir Ahmad
  Problem statement: Endurance horses are generally exposed to severe stress during endurance competitions. These horses are however conditioned to cover the long distances of the competitions at moderate speeds. Approach: This study was conducted in Malaysia to determine the post-race hematological, blood electrolyte and biochemical and physical parameters of horses of 40, 80 and 120 km endurance race categories and eliminated and horses that completed the races with good performance. Whole blood, plasma and serum samples were collected after each race. Results: After physical examination 7 (9.72%) 120 km-, 48 (66.67%) 80 km- and 17 (23.61%) 40 km-race horses were eliminated. Eight horses, all from the 80 km-race category completed the race with good performance. The mean heart of the good performance horses (74.2±13.9 beats min-1) was higher than that of the eliminated 40 km- (68.2±14.7 beats min-1), 80 km-race (62.9±9.7 beats min-1) horses. The blood lactate concentration of good performance horses was 9.2±2.2 mmol L-1, which was significantly higher than in the 40 km- (6.0±2.9 mmol L-1), 80 km- (6.7±3.2 mmol L-1) and the 120 km-race (6.4±1.6 mmol L-1) horses. The blood glucose concentration was lower in the good performance horses (1.6±0.9 mmol L-1) than the eliminated 40 km- (5.7±1.9 mmol L-1), 80 km- (4.3±2.4 mmol L-1) and the 120 km-race (5.0±1.4 mmol L-1) horses. Conclusion: The study showed that eliminated horses exhibited poorer glucose utilization than good performance horses, which may have resulted in poor lactate production. Thus the blood lactate and glucose concentrations of horses during training may be used to predict their performance in endurance races.
  Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah , Abdinasir Yusuf Osman , Lawan Adamu , Mohd Syamil Mohd Yusof , Abdul Rahman Omar , Abdul Aziz Saharee , Abd Wahid Haron , Rasedee Abdullah and Mohd Zamri-Saad
  Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) is an acute, fatal, septicaemic disease of cattle and water buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida, serotype B:2 in tropical countries. The limitations associated with accurate predictions of mortality, survival levels and the detection of the presence of the organism from various organs of infected animals. Hence, this study used mouse model to evaluate the pattern of mortality and bacterial recovery from organs. Twenty-four mice were randomly divided into two groups. Infected group were inoculated orally with 109 colony forming unit of P. multocida type B, the group 2 were negative controls. The mice were observed for 5 days post-inoculation. At necropsy, visceral organs of dead animals were subjected for the confirmation using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The results showed that mortality rate was significantly different (p<0.05) between the infected and control groups. Within infected group, highly significant difference (p<0.05) was observed where 12.5% of the mortality rate was recorded within 24 h and 62.5% within 48 h post-infection. The survival rate, in infected group, was found to be around 25%. In diagnosis, P. multocida type B was detected from all organs of animals that did not survive. In contrast, P. multocida type B was neither recovered nor detected from the organs of mice which survived until the end of the experimental period (120 h). The results of this study indicated that manipulation of the organism in experimental animals provided clear information of the incidence of the disease in the field.
  Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah , Abdinasir Yusuf Osman , Lawan Adamu , Zunita Zakaria , Rasedee Abdullah , Mohd Zamri-Saad and Abdul Aziz Saharee
  Acute Phase Protein (APP) investigations of serum or plasma following natural or experimental infection frequently reveal substantial alterations in the APPs, several of which are of veterinary importance in the assessment of herd health. The present study of the experimental nature was conducted to evaluate the acute phase protein responses; haptoglobin, Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and serum albumin in relation to infection with Pasteurella multocida type B and its immunogens; lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) in calves. Eight clinically healthy, non-pregnant and non-lactating Brangus cross calves weighing 150±50 kg were used in this study. The calves (n = 8) were divided into 4 groups of 2 calves in each group. The control group was inoculated with sterile Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) whereas group 2 were inoculated with wild-type P. multocida type B:2 and group 3 and 4 were inoculated with LPS and OMP respectively. Blood samples were collected via jugular vein-puncture at 3 h intervals for APPs analysis. APPs were quantified by commercially available ELISA methods. Moribund animals were euthanized while the surviving animals were killed after 48 h. The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences (p<0.05) between APPs concentrations throughout the experimental period in challenged groups compared to control groups. Over 7-fold increase was observed in Hp concentrations with mean maximum levels of 1.316±0.558 ng mL-1, 1.521±0.687 ng mL-1 after experimentally induced with OMP and LPS respectively. SAA increased less than 3-fold with mean levels of 2.187±0.880 ng mL-1, 2.421±0.432 ng mL-1, 2.657±0.099 ng mL-1 in almost all challenged groups; Pasteurella Multocida, OMP and LPS respectively. In contrast, for the negative APP, the albumin levels of groups LPS and OMP did not show significant difference (p>0.05) with mean levels of 32.677±1.556 and 36.185±2.239 U L-1, respectively. While P. multocida group (22.193±2.727 U L-1) showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05) than the negative control group (34.233±6.900 U L-1). In conclusion, the findings of this study indicated that APPs; SAA and haptoglobin are sensitive biomarkers to explore host response in relation to Haemorrhagic Septicaemia infections in clinical settings.
  Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah , Abdinasir Yusuf Osman , Lawan Adamu , Zunita Zakaria , Rasedee Abdullah , Mohd Zamri-Saad and Abdul Aziz Saharee
  Pasteurella multocida is an opportunistic pathogen with veterinary and human significance. The species diverse and complexity between the types exist with respect to antigenic variation, host predilection and pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine hematological and serum concentration of biochemical values in calves having infected with Pasteurella multocida type B and its immunogens; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Outer Membrane Protein (OMP). A total of eight clinically healthy calves were divided into four groups of 2 calves in each group. Group 1 were inoculated with sterile Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS). Group 2 were inoculated with wild-type P. multocida type B: 2 while Group 3 and 4 were inoculated with LPS and OMP extracted from Pasteurella multocida type B, respectively. Blood samples were collected for haematological and biochemical analysis. Results indicated significant differences in the mean values of Prothrombin Time (PT), Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT) and thrombocyte levels in infected groups 2-4 compared to the control group. There was significant decrease in the mean concentration of Alanine Transaminase (ALT) for group 2 (20.607±1.639 U L-1), group 3 (22.067±1.617 U L-1) and group 4 (40.327±8.351 U L-1). Conversely, there was no significant difference in Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) for group 2 (149.857±17.327 U L-1) but a significant decrease for groups 3 (114.147±20.901 U L-1) and group 4 (128.971±17.068 U L-1). There was no significant differences in the serum levels of Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) and almost all tested electrolytes in infected groups. In conclusion, our results provide evidence in support of using some haematological and biochemical markers for early detection of individuals at risk for wild type of Pasteurlla multocida.
  Lawan Adamu , Noraniza Mohd Adzahan , Rasedee Abdullah and Bashir Ahmad
  Metabolic crises are the convoluted and injurious physiological changes observed in eliminated endurance horses during endurance races. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the changes in biochemical hematological and cytokine in endurance horses with metabolic crises. The 32 endurance horses between the ages of 6-20 years and weighing between 350-450 kg were examined to be clinically healthy pre-ride. The 16 horses were eliminated post-race as a result of metabolic crises. Blood sample were collected at pre and post ride. The blood samples were analyzed for biochemical, hematological and cytokine. The parameters were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. There were significant increases in RBC, Hb and PCV (p<0.0001). There were significant increases in MCV (p<0.0104) and a significant decrease in MCHC (p<0.0039). There were significant increases in WBC segmented neutrophil and monocytes (p<0.0001). Band neutrophil (p<0.0003) and lymphocytes (p<0.0043). There was a significant increase in IL-6 (p<0.0004). Significant decreases were observed in sodium and potassium (p<0.0001) and chloride (p<0.0004) while significant increases were also assessed in total protein, urea, lactate and creatine kinase (p<0.0001) AST (p<0.0049) glucose (p<0.0207) plasma protein and uric acid (p<0.0014). In conclusion metabolic crises are the major causes of eliminations and poor performance in endurance horses. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the biochemical, hematological and cytokine as indicative of metabolic crises and poor performance in endurance horses.
  Lawan Adamu , Noraniza , Rasedee Abdullah and Bashir Ahmad
  Metabolic crisis is the complex and detrimental physiological changes observed in eliminated endurance horses during endurance events. Therefore, this study aims to appraise the alterations in biochemical, hematological and physical parameters of endurance horses with metabolic crisis. About 174 endurance horses between the ages of 6-20 years were examined to be clinically healthy pre-ride and 115 were eliminated post-race as a result of metabolic crisis. Blood sample was collected and physical examinations were conducted at pre and post ride. The blood sample was analyzed for biochemical and hematological parameters. The parameters were assessed using one-way analysis of variance. Metabolic crisis leads to significant increases in heart rate (p<0.0001), capillary refill time (p<0.005) and significant decrease in gut motility (0.006). There were significant increases in RBC, Hb and PCV at (p<0.0001). There were also significant increases in WBC (p<0.0002), band neutrophil (p<0.012), segmented neutrophil (p<0.0001) and monocytes (p<0.011). Significant decreases were seen in sodium (p<0.0196) and chloride (p<0.0001). Significant increases were also assessed in plasma protein (p<0.0001), albumin (p<0.0001), lactate (p<0.0001), creatine kinase (p<0.0033), uric acid (p<0.0017), gamma glutamyl transferase (p<0.0472), urea (p<0.0014), triglyceride (p<0.0041), total protein (p<0.0001), icterus index and bilirubin (p<0.0024). Thus, these changes could be indicative of metabolic crisis and poor performance in endurance horses.
  Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah , Lawan Adamu , Abdinasir Yusuf Osman , Mohd Zamri Saad , Zunita Zakaria , Rasedee Abdullah and Abdul Aziz Saharee
  Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (HS) is a killer disease of cattle and buffalo of economic importance in Asia and Africa. There is insufficient information on the responses of Balb c mice as animal model in respect of immunogens and Acute Phase Proteins (APP) profiles. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the acute phase protein profiles in mice associated with the infection of Pasteurella multocida type B and the bacterial lipopolysaccharide and outer membrane protein immunogens. Two hundred healthy Balb/c mice of 8-10 weeks old were used in this study. They were divided into four equal groups of 50 mice each. Mice of group 1 were inoculated intra-peritoneal with 1.0 mL sterile Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7, group 2 were inoculated with 1.0 mL of 109 colony forming unit (cfu) of P. multocida B: 2. Mice of groups 3 and 4 were inoculated intra-peritoneal with 1.0 mL of LPS and 1.0 mL of OMP, respectively. Acute phase proteins analysis were done using two sites Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (ELISA) highly sensitive test kits. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Haptoglobin concentration increased significantly in group 3 and 4 (p<0.05) following inoculation with immunogens compared to control group. Mice in group 3 and 4 showed significantly (p<0.000) 3 times higher concentrations of SAA and significantly (p<0.037) 1.3 times increased concentrations of SAA, respectively compared to the control group. There was no significant changes in the concentrations of fibrinogen in group 2 (p = 0.177), group 3 (p = 0.088) and group 4 (p = 0.359). C-reactive protein in groups 2 and 3 showed significantly (p<0.05) higher levels than the control group. Albumin showed significant increase (p<0.05) in group 2 compared to the control group. There were significant changes in the concentrations of acute phase proteins and clinical responses post inoculation with immunogens indicating adverse pro-inflammatory reactions in mice in the present study.
 
 
 
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